INDEX

S.NO. ARTICLE AUTHOR
1 A Comparison of the remedy picture with the phychological profice of the cancer personality Dr. Harsh Nigam M.B.B.S., M.D., M.F. (Hom.), Kanpur
2 Chronic Renal Failure Dr. Harsh Nigam M.B.B.S., M.D., M.F. (Hom.), Kanpur
3 CLINICAL VERIFICATION OF HOMOEOPATHIC DRUGS IN PSORIASIS Dr. Rajeev Shukla B.Sc., B.H.M.S. (Hons London),Kanpur
4 BEHAVIOURAL PROBLEMS AND ABNORMAL PSYCHOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF CHILDREN Dr. Manish Jain B.Sc., B.H.M.S., H.M.D. (LON), Kanpur
5 PROBLEMS OF MENTALLY SUBNORMAL ADOLESCENTS Dr.Kanta Chhabra D.I. (HOM)London, Kanpur
6 MENOPAUSAL SYNDROME Dr. Poonam Sharma B.H.M.S , Kanpur
7 HOMOEOPATHIC TREATMENT OF AIDS Dr. Durgesh Gupta, Lucknow
8 SPORTS INJURIES & HOMOEOPATHIC TREATMENT Dr. Anil Kumar Jain (Lucknow)
9 When your hand refuses to write Dr. Jintendra Shukla, Lucknow
10 PROSTATE AND HOMOEOPATHY Dr. Sandeep Kumar Mishra, Kanpur
11 SCOPE OF HOMOEOPATHY IN HEAD INJURY Dr. Santosh Tiwari, Kanpur
12 IF YOU HAVE HIGH BLOOD PRESSURE Dr. Parth Sarthi Sharma , Agra
13 ROLE OF HOMOEOPATHY IN SURGICAL CASES DR. PAWAN PAAREEK ,AGRA
14 Dioscorea Villosa in the Treatment of Brown sugar Addiction Dr. Prabhat Kulshreshtha, Agra
15 Psoriasis & Vitiligo DR ABHISHEK BHARTI, Sitapur
16 THE BLOOD AND BLOOD CANCER Dr. Rajendra Kumar ,Ghaziyabad
17 CHOLESTEROL AND THE HEART Dr. Rajendra Kumar,Ghaziyabad
18 Gall Bladder Stone & Kidney Stone Dr. Rajendra Kumar,Ghaziyabad
19 CANCER Dr. Rajendra Kumar,Ghaziyabad
20 OBESITY Dr. Rajendra Kumar ,Ghaziyabad
21 RECOMENDATIONS OF DIET FOR VARIOUS DISORDERS
22 मानव स्वास्थ निरोगी शरीर Dr. Ashok Kumar , Kanpur
23 अपराध और होमियोपैथी Dr. K.L Adarsh, Kanpur
24 होमियोपैथी के द्वारा कैंसर का इलाज़ संभव Dr. Sayad Manzar Azami,Kanpur
25 गाय और बैश भैंस के बंधत्वा और होमियोपैथी उपचार Dr. S.K. Parihaar,Lucknow

7.   HOMOEOPATHIC TREATMENT OF AIDS

HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS

Dr. Durgesh Gupta, LKO

Introduction


The Origins of HIV as a human infection
* The three stages of HIV infection -
Primary Infection.
Post-seroconversion - asymtomatic stages.
AIDS.
* Diagnosis of HIV infection
* Management of patients with HIV infection
* Homoeopathic Treatment


INTRODUCTION


Human Immunodeficiency Virus -1 (HIV-1) and HIV-2 are Lentiviruses.
HIV-1 and HIV-2 both cases Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome(AIDS).
HIV-1 has spread rapidly around the world and is much more common than
HIV-2.
HIV-2 has remained restricted to West Africa, but has also infected singnificant numbers of people in India.
But the impact of HIV is far greater in terms of morbidity and mortality.
Currently 95% of HIV infections occur in developing countries.
No effective vaccines against HIV have yet been produced.
In 2000 there were at least 27 different vaccines being tested in clinical trails.


The Origins of HIV as a Human Infection


Recent studies concluded that HIV probably arose as a human infection.
In western central Africa
In the 1930’s
As a consequence of transfer from primates.
Probably due to eating of infected meat from :
Chimpanzees (HIV-1)
Sooty Mangbay Monkeys (HIV-2)

Two factors in particular allowed to spread around the world.
The post-war boom in global travel as airline travel became accessible to millions of people.
Increased sexual promiscuity both amongst heterosexuals, but more importantly amongst homosexual men.

Western medicine began to recognise AIDS in the early 1980’s as an illness in sexually promiscuous gay men in the U.S.A..

# Before the term AIDS was coined, it was initially known as GRID (Gay Related Immune Deficiency).
# One of the first patients to be diagnosed with AIDS was a male homosexual airline pilot who in a short period of time had sex with hundred of men in a number of cities spread over different continents. With hindsight, is it thought that a Norwegian merchant seaman who visited ports in west Africa was probably the first European to die of AIDS in the 1950s.

The Global Spread of HIV Infection

Subsequently, it became clear that AIDS was not a disease restricted to homosexual men, and that spread of HIV occured via three main routes :

Sexual contact :

Especially when associated with physical abrasions.

Receptive anal sex is an extremely high risk behaviour that is not limited to homosexual men..

* Vaginal heterosexual intercourse is associated with a lower risk of contracting HIV infection.
* Oral sex is associated with an extremely low risk of HIV infection.
The risk of transmission from unprotected receptive oral sex (no condom) is -
* Lower than for receptive anal intercourse using a condom.
* Blood, blood-derived products and organ transplantation:
Blood transfusion not screened for HIV.
Factor VIII prepared from HIV infected blood causes AIDS in a large number of haemophiliacs prior to anonymous HIV screened of blood donors.
* Sharing of needles (contaminated with blood) amongst people who intervenously injected
Recreational drugs such as heroin.
Performance enhancing drugs (athletes)
* Organ or tissue transplantation (e.g. kidney or bone marrow) from an HIV- Positive donor could result in transmission to the recipient, but this mode of transfer must be considered extremely rare.
* Maternal-child transmission
Approximately 42% of HIV infected mothers pass the infection to children via one of the three following routes :
# Trans-placental infection in-utero during pregnancy.
# Infection during vaginal delivery.
# Infection via breast milk.



There have been incidence of HIV transmission from health care workers during therapeutic procedures, but these have been rare.
# A particular notorious case involved a dentist in Florida who infected a number of his patients, probably deliberately. In 2001 a doctor & 6 health workers in Libya were accused of deliberately infecting 373 children with HIV. The trail is on going by the time that AIDS was recognized, HIV infection had already been spread around the world.
# Developing countries focused on limiting the spread of HIV infection there in own communities.
* Governments funded massive safer sex campaigns in the 1980’s.
# By comparison, little attention was given to the emerging HIV pandemic in Africa and other developing countries.
* Education about safe sex remains limited in many parts of the world where


Primary HIV Infection


The risk of HIV transmission is largely dependent upon direct transfer of infected secretions (e.g. semen) or blood that includes high copy number of HIV.
* HIV is much less infective than many other viral infections such as hepatitis B.
* Genital Secretion and blood have the highest HIV copy numbers per ml and poses the greatest risk of transmission.
* Breast milk also has high HIV copy numbers, and may be potential source of transmission between mother and child, although the risk is lower compared to that associated with either genital secretion or blood.
* Cerebrospinal fluid also contains high copy numbers, but is unlikely to be the cause of HIV transmission.
* Saliva, tears, sweat, urine or faces have low copy numbers of HIV and pose a low risk of transmission.
# HIV infection spreads rapidly from the point of inoculation and :
* Many CD4 positive T-lymphocytes (T-helper cells) are infected.
* Some macrophages become infected
# In the first few weeks there is massive HIV replication that results in :
* A marked viraemia (e.g. 5000 infections HIV particles per ml) at which stage :
• The patient is highly infectious.
• Antibodies against HIV have yet been formed, so an HIV test would be negative.
* Dissemination of HIV infection throughout the lymphoid tissue and many other cell types.
As many as 250 billions cells may become infected at this time.



• As many as 250 billions cells may become infected at this time.
# Within weeks a specific immune response against HIV controls the viraemia and copy numbers of HIV drop dramatically.
* CD4 positive lymphocyte numbers, which have been reduced by HIV viral replication return to normal.
* Seroconversion occurs and antibodies against HIV antigens are produced for the first time, and persist thereafter.
* Although the viraemia ends, HIV is not eliminated from the body.
* The infectious risk to others diminishes with resolution of the viraemia, but is still present.
# Clinical Symptoms experienced during the primary phase of infection are extremely variable.
* In many patients this phase is sub clinical and they are free of symptoms.
* Others, perhaps up to 50% experience a Glandular Fever-Like Syndrome.
• During the acute phase the severity of symptoms varies from patient to patient.
• There may be little more than a mild flue-like illness.
Symptoms may include :
• Sore throat
• Fever
• Lymphadenophathy (tender, enlarged lymph node).
• General malaise
• Headache
• Muscle aching
• Erythematous rash involving the trunk
Most of the symptoms subside in a few weeks
• But, lymphadaenopathy and general malaise do persist for several months in some patients.
# A small proportion of patients become clinically immunocompromised at this stage (due to HIV replication killing large number of CD-4 positive cells) and may be present with
* Minor infections such as oral or vaginal thrush, or herpes.
* AIDS-defining opportunistic infections such as oesophageal candidiasis or pneumocystis pneumonia.


Post-Serocoversion - Asymptomatic Stage


The second phase is entered once a specific immune response against HIV has been mounted and has controlled the initial viraemia.

v This phase is asymptomatic
The duration of the second phase is usually at least a year and can be over 10 years.
v The mean length is shorter in Sub-Saharan Africa than in Europe and North America.
u The reason for this are not entirely clear, but malnutrition is probably an important factor.
v A small proportion of patients appear to remain in this asymptomatic stage indefinitely (at least 20 years so far)
u These fortunate people have been intensively investigated as they may hold the key to finding effective treatments and even a cure for HIV infection.
Although the patients are asymptomatic, HIV replication is continuing insidiously
u The patient is an infection risk to others.
u The CD-4 positive lymphocyte counts drop progressively.
u The HIV copy number rises progressively.


AIDS


AIDS is currently defind as an illness characterized by one or more indicator illness.
v The indicator illnesses have changed over the years from those included in the original list formulated by the CDC (Centers for Disease Control).
AIDS can be diagnosed in the absence of laboratory proof of HIV infection (either the test has not been done or the results are inconclusive) if :
Many patients do not know that they are HIV positive until they become clinically immunocompromiosed and are diagnosed with AIDS.
Progression from primary infection to AIDS takes 5-8 years in the majority of people living in developed countries.
Clinical symptoms are particularly associated with :
v CD-4 positive lymphocytes counts below 200/ microlitre, and especially below 100 (Normal 500-2000).
v An increase in viral load.
the direct effect of HIV infection on cells (such as those in the brain) and immunisuppression due to HIV infection causes a wide range of clinical illness including.
v Opportunistic Infections :
l Fungal infections such as oesophageal candidiasis.
l Viral infection such as disseminated CMV infection.
l Bacterial infections such as necrotising Ulcerative Periodontitis.
l Other infections such as Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia.
v Neoplasm :
• Particularly Non-Hodgkin’s Lymphoma and Kaposi’s sarcoma, both of which are associated with viral infections (EBV and HHV8 respectively)
v Dementia
The majority of patients with advanced HIV infection have oral lesions.
Diagnosis of HIV infection
Clinical signs and symptoms may raise the possibility that someone is HIV positive.
v However, remember that there may be other causes for similar clinical lesions.
# Glandular Fever - Like Syndromes during seroconversion.
# Patients may be immunocompromised for other reasons.
The history may indicate that the patient belongs to high risk group for transmission of blood borne viruses including HIV.
# The relevant questions are considered in the inoculation injuries page. However, the diagnosis needs to be confirmed by detection of :
# HIV antibodies :
* Only positive following seroconversion.
* Assays of antibodies raised against HIV form the basis to what has become generically known as an ‘AIDS test’.
# HIV RNA


Management of patients with HIV infection


• HIV infection cannot be cured.
• However, a great deal can be done to support patients with HIV infection and improve their quality of life.
Highly Active Anti-Retroviral Therapy (HAART)
* The development of Highly Active Anti-Retroviral Therapy (HAART) has had a major impact on the management of AIDS by slowing the progression of AIDS.
* HAART can suppress HIV replication for many years allowing the patient to live a relatively normal life free from the symptoms of AIDS.
* Although effective, HAART ultimately fails and HIV replication returns to high levels.
* Drugs that suppress HIV in different ways are included together. For example, these include :
# Reverse transcriptase inhibitors (e.g. AZT) that prevent reverse transcription of HIV RNA.
# Protease inhibitors that prevent cleavage of newly synthesized HIV proteins.
• This cleavage is essential for HIV replication.
* The potential benefits of HAART are considerable, but :
# It is expensive (unavailable to most patients with HIV around the globe)
# It can be associated with poor compliance (too much tablets to take every day)
# The side effects can be severe.
# HIV resistance is becoming more common.
# It ultimately fails in most patients.


HOMOEOPATHIC TREATMENT OF AIDS


ARSENICUM ALBUM { Arsenic Trioxide }
ARSENICUM IODATUM { Iodide of Arsenic }
DROSERA { Sundew }
IODUM { Iodine }
ALOE { Socotrine Aloes }
LACHESIS { Bushmaster or Surow }
NITRICUM ACIDUM { Nitric Acid }
PYROGENIUM { artificial sepsin }
PSORINUM { Scabies Vesicle }
SULPHUR { Sublimated Sulphur }
TUBERCULINUM { A nucleo Protein }
BACILLINUM {A Maceration of a typical }
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