PAST OF FOREIGN PIONEER HOMOEOPATHY

(i) Dr. Samuel Christian Fredric Hahnemann, M.D.(1755-1843)

Dr. Hahnemann was the founder of Homoeopathy. He Propounded the fundamental Principles of the science and art of Homocopathy. He is called the father of Experimental Pharmacology because he was the first physician to prepare medicines in a special way and Proved these medicines on healthy human beings, to find out how the medicines act to cure disease. Prior to him, medicines were given on speculative indications mainly on the basis of authority without experimental verifications. He discovered the remedial powers of drugs and even inert substances like gold Platina, silicia, carbovege, lycopodium, etc. This was possible on account of his discovery of preparing Potentised remedies. By preparing the medicines by Potentiation even the inert and insoluble substances become soluble in alcohol or water and charge them with medicinal force. He established the law of cure known as "Similia similes curentur" Which means that a remedy that can produce artificial sickness can certainly cure a similar natural sickness in a Patient. This law of cure has been verified by millions of homeopaths all over the world since the time of Hahnemann. He discovered the Primary and secondary actions of remedies. The Primary action was toxic the secondary action was benefite be cause it was really a vital reaction to neutralise the Primary or toxic action. This discovery let him to cure toxic diseases by toxic remedies, Is It not wonderful that poisons cure Poisons. He discovered the different natures of acute and chronic diseases. Acute diseases are transitory, they have a begining and an end, where as the chronic diseases are coexistent with life, Either they are Present in manifest or laten state. They have no definite beginning or end, they are a cause of life-long suffering. He discovered the chronic Miasms of Psora, Syphilis and sycosis. He discovered that acute natural diseases become chronic due to wrong treatment because the natural diseases become complicated with bad effects of toxic medicines. This was the reason why he discarded allopathy.

He discovered the inaptly called chronic diseases which were in fact due to environmental influences and if the environments were changed the disease was automatically cured without medicine. He found that cruel treatment in vogue for insane patients was harmful, therefore, he advised a humane treatment for the insanes, He cured many insane patients, and became famous in the treatment of insanity.

Dr. Hahnemann was first to recognise the bad effects of unhygienic conditions as the contributory cause and spread of diseases. For example he traced cholera and typhyd fever due to unhygienic conditions. He also realised the importance of nursing diet, bed rest, warmth and isolation of the patients during epidemic diseases. Dr. Hahnemann is credited with discovery of 'Noxous' Principle as the Precursor of bacterionlogy. But as microscope was not developed at that time he could not go ahead to discover bacteriology.

He introduced centesimal and 50 Millesimal Scales of Potencies. The rule of Single and minimum dose, the doctrine of vital dynamis and spiritual nature of sickness and medicinal energy. He revised 'Organon' (Principles of Homoeopathy) six times to make it perfect and based it on his latest experiences in the field of medicine. He Published 'Materia Medica Pura' in which the exact symptoms of the Patients are given according to a scientific plan. As the language of the book is simple and is without the use of technical terms, the materia medica has a lasting value as a guide for the selection of the homoeopathic remedy. His book 'The chronic Diseases, Their Peculiar Nature and their Homoeopathic cure is a masterpiece. In this book he has shown how the natural diseases are suppressed by wrong treatment and how they become chronic in nature.

He treated thousands of difficult and chronic cases who defied the best of treatment of famous allopaths all over Europe. Thus, he become so famous that physicians from all parts of Europe and America came to him for coaching in the new science and art of healing called Hemopathy.

(ii).Dr. Carl Von Boenning Hausen (1785-1864)

Boenninghausen belonged to One of the Oldest nobility of westphalia, Germany. He was born in 1785 in an Australian family of Netherland. His full name was Clemens. Maria Franz Baron Von Boenning hausen. He was Baron by inheritance, a lawyer by profession and an agriculturist by natural inclination. He held very respectable and responsible posts in Germany and enjoyed a life of position and influence.

Dr. Boenninghausen, s life was remarkable in a number of ways, including his entry in the medical profession. As a Doctor of Laws, he practised as a lawyer for sometime and later became a judge. Because of his interst in Horticulture, he was made Director of Botanical Gardens at Munster. Here, He come to be Known as the "Sage of Munster" It was 1827 that he developed purulent tuberculosis. When he did not find any relief from the best Orthodox treatment and the Physicians gave no hope of his recovery he wrote a letter to his friend Dr. A Weing expressing his hopelessness for life and bidding him his last goodby. Incidently, Dr, A Weihe was a homoeopath and asked Boenninghausen to try homoeopathic treat- Ment fortunately for Boenninghausen and for Homoeopathy Dr. Weihe cured him. It was but natural that Boenninghausen was greatly impressed with the treatment and took deep interest in studying Homoeopathy and devoted his whole life for the cause of Homoeopathy right from the age of 43.He was in regular correspondence with. Dr. Hahnemann. Most of his systematic works concerning Homoeopathy were published between 1828 and 1846 He was at this time a regular contributor of articles on Homoeopathic subjects to the journals. On account of his great learning and Practice, King Wilhem IV. in July 1843 issued a Cabinet Order bestowing upon Boenninghausen all the rights and immunities of a Practising physician. He died at the ripe age of 79 in 1864

The Outstanding contributions to the advancement of Homeopathy by Boenning hausen were. 1. Classification of characteristic symptoms,

2. Compilation of the first Repertory of Anti-Psoric Remedies.

The most important questions that were puzzling the homoeopaths at that time were 1. How to select the correct homoeopathic remedy, 2. How to Simplify the selection of the similimum? It was a very difficult job to select the remedy because there was a rapidly growing number of homoeopathic remedies with vast number of symptoms in their provings and that there was no clear-cut difference between the guiding and spurious symptoms.

The most important questions that were puzzling the homoeopaths at that time were 1. How to select the correct homoeopathic remedy, 2. How to Simplify the selection of the similimum? It was a very difficult job to select the remedy because there was a rapidly growing number of homoeopathic remedies with vast number of symptoms in their provings and that there was no clear-cut difference between the guiding and spurious symptoms.

At first, Boenninghausen wrote to homoeopaths to elaborate the class. Of 'Characteristic Symptim' as advised by Hahnemann in Para 153 of Organon which points out that the Peculiar, Striking. Uncommon and singular symptoms of the remedy are most important in the selection of homoeopathic remedy. But he did not receive any reply, not any article on the subject of characteristic symptoms. Hence he himself concentrated on this subject and published it in his 'Lesser writings.

He classified the characteristic symptoms into seven categories. They are: 1. Quis (Personality of the Patient) 2. Quis (Peculiarity of Complaints), 3. UBI (Seat of Disease), 4. Quibus Auxilus (Concomitant Symptoms), 5. Cure (Causations), 6. Quamado (Modalities of Time) 7.Quando (Modalities of Circumstances) All these seven categories of symptoms formed the characteristic Totality of symptom for the selection of the similimum. Thus Boenninghausen was One step ahead of Hahnemann who Only pointed Out the 'Totality of symptoms' as the disease to be cured in 'Organon'

The second task allotted to him by Hahnemann was to Prepare a 'Repertory' to make it easy and quick to choose the correct homoeopathic remedy. It was very difficult and time consuming to select the similimum from the vast 'Materia Medica' hence the idea of 'Repertory' was the Only answer.

Boenninghausen Knew about the Scheme of Hahnemann (the sequence in which the Proved symptoms of homoeopathic remedies were arranged by Hahnemann). He knew all the Proved anti Psoric remedies and their characteristic symptoms. Hence he was best fitted to Compile the first 'Reperlory' Dr. Hahnemann used the 'Repertory and found it very handy and useful.

The importance of characteristic symptoms was realised by every homoeopath who wrote a 'Matera Medica' after Boenninghausen Dr. Hughes gave more importance to pathological characterstics Dr. HN. Guernsey, Allen and Nash attached more importence to Key note characteristic symptom Dr. Lippe Boger, Clark Considerd all the seven categories of characteristic symptoms in their 'Materia Medica' and Dr. Kent attached greatest importance to the Mentals, Physical Generals and Modality Generals. Much advancement has taken place in the complecaion of Repertories too. We have now a Number of different types of repertories. The latest repertories are Punched Card Reper tories which are very useful and a time. saving device for the selection of the correct homoeo pathic remedy. On account of solving these two great Problems of Homoeopathy, Boen ninghause is regarded as a Pillar of Homoeopathy.

(iii) Dr. Cons Tantine Hering, M.D. (1800-1880)

Dr. C. Hering is aptly called the 'Father' of Homoeopathy' in America. His conversion to Homoeopathy is very intersting. Hering was born at Oschath in saxony on January 1,1800, At the age of 17, he became interested in medicine and joined the University of Leipzig. Where he was the favourite Pupil of the eminent surgeon, Dr. Henrich Robbi. At this time Hahnemann was an eyesore to the stalwarts of orthodox medicine, because 'Organon' was a challenge to their system of medicine. Dr. Robbi was a critic of Hahnemann and like other physicians used to ridicule Homoeopathy and Hahememann.

In 1821 When the campaign against Hahnemann was at its worst, C. Baumgartner, the founder of a publishing house in Leipzig wanted a book written against Homoeopathy.

A book which would quite finish the system Robbi was asked to write it but he declined for want of time and recommended his young assistant Hering. Hering was plesed with this mark of confidence and set about the work in right earnest and nearly finished it in the winter of 1822 But going throgh Hahnemann's works for the sake of making quotations, he come across the famous. nota-bene for my reviewers in the preface to the third volume of the Materia Madica Pura which said among other things, the doctrine appeals not only chiefly, but soely to the verdict of experience repeat the experiments, it cries aloud, repeat them carefully and accurately and you will find the doctrine confirmed at every step' -and it does What no medical doctrine, no system of physic, no so called therapeutics ever did or could do, it insists upon being judged by the result.

Hering decided to accept the challenge. The first step was to repeat the cinchona experiment. The result was what Hahnemann had predicted. Hering began to see the truth in Hemopathy. Further study of homeo pathic Materia Medica and his experiments made him more Convinced about Hahnemann's conclusion. The book against Homoeopathy thus never saw saw the light. Day.

In the winter of 1824 an incident occurred which had the effect of unshakable faith in homoeopathy on Hering. The fore-finger of his right hand was cut while making a dissection on a dead body. The woond rapidly became gangrenous. In those day such wounds were mostly fatal. The routine ortho dox medicines had no effect. Luckily for Hering and for Homoeopathy, a disciple of Hahnemann, Named kummer Persuaded him to take homoeopathic treatment and gave him Arsenic Alb After few doses he felt better and the gangrene healded completely. Hering was surprised and his interest in Homoeopathy knew no bounds. He contacted Hahnemann for further instruction and light on Homoeopathy.

In spite of great difficulties put before him being a student of Hahnemannian views Hering got the degree. of M.D. from the University of Wuerzburg with highest honours. The theme of his Thais was " De Medicina Future" (The Medicine of Future) Hering left Germany for West Indies and finally arrived at Philadelphia in Jan. 1833 He established a Homoeopathic School at Allentown. Pennsylvania, Commonly, Known as 'Allentown. Academy, Soon he became very popular as a physician. He became a member. Of the Academy of natural Sciences, and Presented to it, his large and valuable zoological collections including the Original Lachesis trigonacephalus from South America, The Snake with whose poison he had made the first Provings of his lachesis. Hering wrote many articles, monographs and books. He was the chief Editor of the North American Homoeopathic Joural, The Homoeopathic News, the American journal of Homoeopathic Materia Medica, and the Journal of his own college. He wrote the :Domestic Physician' and the Guilding Symptoms' a monumental work of 10 volumes

It is in the sphere of drug Proving, however, that Herring's daring shows at its best It has been remarked by Nash and others that if Hering had done nothing else for medicine but the proving of the single drug lachesis, the world would owe him an everlasting debt of gratitude, that alone would immortalise him.

He Proved 72 drugs, Out of which follow- ing are the most important ones: Cantharis, Colchicum, Iodium, Mezeriun, Sabadilla, Sabina, Psorinum, Nux-moschata, Lachesis, Crotalus, Apes, Hydrophobium, Phytolacca, Platina, Glonoin Gelsemium, Kalmia, Ferrum-met Fluoric acid, Phosphoric acid etc.

He enunciated the "Law of Directions of Cure" Known popularly as Hering's Law, and which points out: "The cure takes place, from centre to peripheri, from head to extramities and in the reverse directions of the development of the symptoms", Thus Hering took up the work left by his master, Hahnemann and held the flag of Homoeopathy till the last breath of his life.

(iv) Dr. Whilhelm Heinrich Schuessler M.D. (1821-1898)

Schuessler was born on August 21, 1821 in the little town of Zwischenahn in Oldenburg, Germany. He was very studious boy. Owing to his outstanding abilities he could devote most of his time to Foreign languages. Latin Greek, French, English Spanish and Italian were easily Mastered by him. During this time Homoeopathy, due to its marvellous achievements, was capturing the hearts of younger generation. When he grew into a young man, Schuessler decided to become a homoeopathic practitioner. On hearing this his brother promised assistance on the condition only if he would become a legally qualified physician practising Homoeopathy. Schuessler accepted the offer and studies madicine at the Universities of berlin, Paris Giessen & prague obtaining his M.D. After two & a half year He started his Practice as a homoeopathic physician at Oldenburg.

The reasons which induced schuessler to look around for a new therapy are best given in his own words which he worte in 1874 "Therapies, which have such undfined boundaries, that they may at any time accept new remedies, and may likewise retain or reject old remedies, cannot offer the security necessary in the service of the patients and in the interst of science. To create a therapy with sharply defined boundaries has for a long time been my endeavour"

In 1873 Schuessler published in the "General Homoeopathic Journal' (Allgemeine Hom Zeitung) vol. 86. Page. 91, the first treatise of his new healing system under the title " An Abridged Homoeopathic therapy" in 1874 his frist book "An Abridged Therapy Based on physilogy and cellular pathology" was published, which was destined to carry his theory around the globe. Two leaders in the world of Seience had shown him the path for exploration. They are :

1. Rodulf Virchew was the founder of cellular Pathology. Which teaches that all diseases are based upon a change in function or condition of cells in the body. The Possibility of stimulating these cells, forms, the starting point of schuessler's doctrine.

2. The Second to influence him was professor Moleschott who pointed out "the structure and vitality of the Organs depending upon the presence of the inorganic constituents" To the above two theses by virchew and Moleschott, Dr. Schuessler added his doctrine: "Restoratinon of the cell, and thereby of the body, will result from restoration of the deficit of the inorganic salts" Dr. Schuessler learnt from hahnemann that to prevent damage & to render the remedies capable of absorption by the cells, they must be potentised.

Schuessler's system of treatment is called Biochemic therapy. It is an Offshoot of homoeopathy because the twelve salts used in Biochemistry were mostly used in Hemopathy. Biochemic salts are used in Potentised form as the homeopathic drugs. While the biochemic salts supply the deficiency in the tissues and cells of the body to restore their vitality, the homoeopathic remedies produce a similar vital disorder to stimulate the vital force to check the natural diseases. Therefore, Schuessler,s therapy is concerned with the corporeal disoder and Homoeopathy restores the vital or spiritual disorder.

Schuessler my be called the 'Father of deficiency therapy' the modern medical scientists now recognise dificiency diseases due to inadequate supply of Hormones, Principles of food and minerals. Many of the modern homoeopaths are using homoeopathic, biochemic and organopathic remedies on the basis of their indication in a disease or in differnt diseases. He did not find any fault in combining the homoeopathic remedies with Organopathic remedies. Schuessler, s Biochemic therapy has Provided a grater field to work and to achieve success for a homoeopath Homoeopathy, biochemistry and organo therpy all have limited field of usefulness but if they are combined on rationale basis, the sphere of cure is unlimited excepting incurable conditions.

Dr. Schuessler is regraded as a 'Pillar of Homoeopathy, because he was contributed Biochemic Therapy, the Corporeal approach which is lacking in Homoeopathy and has considerably widened the scope of cure.

(v) Dr. Carrol Dunham, M.D. (1828-1877)

Dr. Carrol Dunham was born in New York on October 29, 1828 He graduated from the Columbia University with Honour in 1847 In 1850 he received M.D. degree at the college of physicians and Surgeons of Newyork. While in Dublin, he received dissecting wound which nearly killed him but with the aid of Homoeopathy he cured himself with Lachesis. He visited various homoeo pathic hospitals in Europe and then went to Munster where he stayed with Dr. Boenning hausen and studied the methods of that great master.

He was voluminous writer. For twenty five years he contributed articles regularly. Among his works are Lectures on Materia Medica and Homoeopathy Science of Therapeutices. Whatever subject he touched he treated it with the best of his ability and revealed his thorough grasp of the fundamental Principles. Under the stress of his large Practice he developed reumatic carditis. the Old school specialists gave up but once again homoeopathy saved him. His friend and respectable Dr. Hering described Lithium carb. Which put him right. He then set out to organise the "World Homoeopathic Convention" which had been his dream of many years. The con vention was a resounding success. but it exhausted him. He took to bed in December 1876 and passed away on february 18, 1877 in his 49th year.

(vi) Dr. H.C. Allen MD (1836-1909)

Dr. H.C. Allen was born in Branthford, ontario, on October 2, 1836 He studied Medicine in the college of physicians and Surgeons of Ontario and graduated in Homoeopathy at the Cleveland Homoeopathic College in 1861. He then taught at the Hahnemann, College of Chicago. Later, from 1880-85 he served as a Head of the Depart- Ment of Materia medica of the University of michigan at Ann Arbor. Allen was well. Known as a great teacher and successful Presriber who learnt, and acquired this art from Dr. Adolf Von Lippe, the past master. His popular books Key notes and therapeutic of Fevers and his master Piece 'Materia Medica of the Nosodes, bear ample testimony to his deep knowledge. he passed away in 1909

(vii) Dr. Richard Hughes (1836-1902)

Dr. Rechard Hughes was born in London in 1836 He received these tittle of M.R.C.S. (Eng.) in 1857 and L.R.C.P. (Edin.) in 1860. The title of American college. a few years Iater. It is tribute to Dr. Hughes's in indiomi table energy, patience and courage that in spite of deepest admiration and respect for the founder of Homoeropathy he examined minutely each and every symptom in Hahnemann's record going to the very Original sources in the effort to separate the wheat from the chaff.

Hughes was a great writer and scholar. He actively co-operated with Dr. T.F. Allen to compile his 'Encyclopedia' and rendered immeasurable aid to Dr. Dudgeon in trans latin Hahnemann's Materia Medica pura into English. In 1989 he was appointed an Editor of the British Homoeopathic journal' and continued in that capacity until his demise.

In 1876 Dr. Hughes was appointed as the Permanent Secretary of the Organisation of the International congress of Homoeopathy Physicians in Philadelphia and presided Over the international congress held in London, Dr. Hughes died in Aril 1902

(viii) Dr. T.F. Allen, M.D (1837-1903)

Dr. T.F Allen was born on April 24 1837. He got his Degree in 1861 He started his practice as a partner of Dr. Carrol Dunham and later on became professor of Materia Medica in the New York Homoeopathic Medical college. Later on he became the Dean of the Faculty and then president. Professor Allen, as he was well-known, became the most respective teacher and Prescriber. He completed the exhausted volumes of the Encyclopedia of Pure materia medica and later on the Hand book of Materia Medica He also produced a fine addition of 'Boenninghausen's Therapeutic Pocket Book. The degree of L.L.D. was conferred upon him in 1883. He died in 1903

(ix) Dr. E.A. Farriengton, M.D. (1847-1885)

Dr. E.A. Farriengton was born on june 1, 1847 in long Island, Newyork. He graduated from the Hahnemann Medical college of Philadeiphia in 1868 He then became a teacher in the same collge and Iater on Professor of Materia Madica. He was daily associated with Dr. Hering and became one of the masters in the field. He contributed several valuable articles and wrote excellent books like 'Clinical Materia medica and comparative Materia medica, He Passed away on December 17.1885 at an early age after rendering great service to the cause of Homoeopathy.

(x) Dr. James Tyler Kent, M.D. (1849-1910)

Dr. Kent was born in woodhul, New York, on March 31, 1849 He graduated from the Eclectic Medical Institute of Cincinati, and started practice in St. Louis as an Eclectic. He became intersted in Homoeopathy in 1878, when his wife's illness failed to respond either to eclectic or allopathic tretment and was cured by a homoeopath, who encourged him to practise Homoeopathy. First he began to practise with low potencies, but he was not satisfied. later he resolved to test the 30th Potency to see if there was any medicine in it. He prepared with his own hands the 30th potency of Podophyllum with water according to centesimal scale after the method of Hahnemann, having been told that water was as good as alcohol. One day a child was brought in his clinc in emergency and it appeared that the child could not live long It was an infant and while it lay in the arms of its mother . a thin yellow focal stool ran all Over his carpet. The odour was like that of Podophyillum stool. it was horribly offensive, and the stool was so copious that mother made the remarks that she did not know where it all came from. Dr. Kent thought to test podophyllum 30 prepared by him for that case. next morining he was surprised to learn from the grandmother of the child that he was doing well. One dose of Podophyllum cured a dangerously ill patient. He then realised the power of the Potentised remedies, and he thought of using more and more highly potentised remedies in his practice.

He become famous as a high potency homoeopath since most of the homoeopaths before him were using low potency remedies He advocated the use of the 30th 200th. 1M, 50M, CM, DM and MM potencies made on the centesimal scale. Dr. Kent introduced the doctrine of series in Degrees in the treatment of chronic diseases. He found that one potency is not sufficient for chronic. It will generally do for acute sicknesses. Many chronic sicknesses are cured by keeping the patient under the influence of the one indicated remedy for two or more years. But this cannot be done with continuous curative action, unless the doctrine of series in Degrees is fully understood and used.

Dr. Kent discovered that "Just as there are so there are octaves of musical tones, so there are in the simple substance, through which, severally it is possible to correspond with the varisus planes of the interior organism of the animal cell. These planes correspond to similar remedy in 30th. 200th. IM. 10 M, 50M, CM, DM, and MM poten cies, He found that when the action of 30th is completed the patient needs the 200th potency to keep him under the remedial action a time but when the action of 200th potency is exhausted, the patient requires 1M Potency of the same remedy and so on till the some remedy in higher and highest potencies cures him permanently.

Dr. Kent discovered the Law of vital Action and Reaction, as pointed Out by Dr. Hahnemann. The law is : A medicine is not too high to cure so long as a it is capable of aggravating the symptoms belonging to the sickness, in the first hours in acute, and in the first few days of a chronic sickness" He also found that a homoeopathic aggravation is essential from the application of the similimum in chronic cases. If there is only relief without homoeopathic aggravation the chronic sickness is only superficially affected and shall require a deeper acting remedy to remove the vital disorder.

Dr. Kent laid greatest importance to will, understanding and memory of the patient. they form the innermost of the man, and these are extended outward through the general physical organism. The cure takes place from centre to peripheri, but if the symptoms retreat from peripheri to centre the prescription is wrong and must be antidoted. Hence in order to treat successfully, the correspondence of organs and direction of cure.

Dr. Kent did not attach any importence to constitutions as an aid in precribing. He says: Every individual is a constitution"

Dr. Kent proved many new medicines which he has described in his books : New Remedies clinical cases lesser writings aphorism and precepts.

Dr. Kent was famous for teaching Materia Medica He taught Materia Medica. At Homoeopathic medical college. St. louis from 1881-88 at school of Homoeopathy, Philadelphia from 1990-99 at Hahnemann medical college and Hospital. Chicago from 1903-9 and at the same time at Hering medical college and hospital, He was so famous that students from England, European countries, India and Other Parts of the world sought admission to the institution where he taught the subject, Sir john weir, A.H. Grimmer, Piere schmidt, B.K. Bose and many famous homoeopaths all over the world were his disciplines. He was the President and Trustee of Chicago Homoeopathic Hospital. His Lectures on Homoeopathic Materia Medica, Repertory of the Materia Medica, Homoeopathic philosophy, and What the Doctors Need to Know are most popular and Know to most of the homoeopaths. Dr. G.E. Dionst says, His remarkable genius of selecting a similar remedy on the plane of the disese for which he prescribed, was really phenomenal, almost magical. This was natural for him and, yet to his natural genius and power of concentration he added years of unstincted study, this made him one of the greatest masters in homoeopathic medicine the world has ever known. He died at stevensville, Montana on june 6, 1910.

(xi) Dr. John Henry Clarke, M.D (1853-1931)

Dr. Clarke was one of the most eminent homoeopaths of England, who devoted his whole life for the advancemant of Homoeopathy. He had his famous Clinic at 8, Bolton street, Piccadilly, a posh locality in London. Anyone who ment Clarke even Only once must have been impressed with the feeling of an exceptional human being, a forceful personality, a man apart. He was so busy in his studies that he had very little time to mix up with other he was a prodigious worker , as his published work testify, to say nothing of the hosts of Private pastients from all parts of the world. He was also a consulting physician to the London Homoeopathic Hospital He was the editor of the Homoeopathic world' for twenty-years. His famous publications are as follows. 1. The prescriber-A Dictionary of the New Therapeutics with an essay on "How to Practise Homoeopathy" This little book has helped thousands of lay Practitioners to prescribe successsfully and carry the message of Homoeopathy to far-offlands. It is one of the must have books for every new practitioner of Homoeopathy. Its indications of remedies are based on personal experiences of a number of reputed homoeopaths like Burnett. Hughes, Cooper, Ruddock, Neatby Salser. etc.

2. The Dictionary of Practical Materia medica consistes of 3 Volumes. It is a gigantic task which show the in dominating will and Perseverance of Dr. Clarke. He has given the synonyms. the source, Provers, Users and their experiences, Clinical indications, tempermental, Key note and characteristic, Pathalogical, Sensational, Locational, Modalities and causational indications of each drug. He has also given accord ing Hahnemannian Schema, the provings of the drug. He has also given the relationship of the drug with other remedies. The comparisons and contrasts of the similar drugs have also been given to individualise the remedy in a scientific way. And above all his personal experieces as well as the experiences of other homoeopaths have greatly enhanced the utility of the materia medica.

3. A Clinical Repertory to the Dictionary of Materia Medica together with Repertories of Causation, Temperaments, Clinical Relationship and Natural Relationship, was specially designed by him for the study of his huge materia medica. The Repertory is Individualisation of the similimum form other similar remedies.

4. A Diseases of the Heart and Arteries, their Causes, Nature and the Treatment is an excellent book for the guidance of Practitioners Homoeopathy as it is full of cases treated by him.

5. A Dictionary of Domestic medicine is very useful for lay practitioners as well as the homoeopaths.

6. Rheumatism and Sciatica is a practical book. It contains many useful hints for the tretment of this universal disease and very common all over Great Britain.

7. A Bird's Eye View of Hahnemann's Organon.

8. The Principes of Cure.

9. Indigestion.

10. A.B.C. Manual.

Dr Clarke belongs to the band of Provers of Nosodes, The Products of disease used as homoeopathic remedies. The Chief Stalwarts among them were. Swan fincke, clarke, burnett, Hering, Wheeler, Bach, Patterson Grimmer and Others.

He has the credit of Introducing the following remedies to the Homoeopathic materia medica. Pertussin Carcinosinum, Epihysterinum, Bacillinum Testicum, Morbillinum, Parotidinum, Scarletinum, Scirrhinum, etc.

Dr. Clarke did not confine himself to the remedies proved according to Hahnemann but also presented clinically Proved remedies by a host of homoeopaths, including Organopathic, Biochemic, Specific and Homoeopathic remedies in his Dictonary of Practical Materia Medica.

On account of his Herculian efforts in all spheres of Homoeopathy viz. Publications on Homoeopathic principals editorials, materia medica, Repertory, Therapeutics and special monographs on diseases along with proving of new remedies make him one of the pillars of homoeopathy, He died in 1931

(xii) Dr. C.M. Boger, M.D (1861-1935)

Dr. C.M. Boger. Prominent as a Physician and author of a number of medical books. came to Parkersbrug, U.S.A. in 1888 and had since been engaged in the practices of medicine. He graduated from the philadelphia college. of Medicine. He later studied at the Hahnemann Homoeopathic Medical college in philadelphia, from which also he graduated. During his long career in medical practice and research. Dr. Boger contributed important scientifinc text-books including the 'Synoptic Key of the materia medica, in addition to his authorship of the number of articles for medical journals.

His authorship of several scientific text-books, his analysis and contruction of Repertory, his lively translation of several medical books from notable German authors and his indefatigable labour for the production of original works, like 'The Times of the Remedies and Moon Phases' and his, Provings. of samarkite, etc. made his universally recognised as an author and physician of great eminence. Dr. Boger passed away on septmber2, 1935, at the age, of 74.

(xiii) Dr. William Earnest Boyd, M.D. (1891-1955)

Dr. Boyd, was born on May 21, 1891 in Glasgow, He was educated at the Glasgow Acedemy and the Glasgow, University, from where he took the M.A. M.B., Ch.B and M.D. degrees. During the world war I, he served as a surgeon in the Royal Navy. Later he joined the Homoeopathic Faculty in 1919. It was due to the influnence of Dr. Gibson Miller that he owed his initial Knowlege and interest in Homoeopathy from 1920 onwards, he was physician and Radiologist to the Glasgow Homoeopathic Hospital. He was the founder and first Director of the Boyd Medical Research Trust laboratories. He was member of numerous learned societies, such as the Faraday, Society, the Royal Philosophical Society, Glasgow, the Society of physical Medicine branch of the British medical Association the Institute of Radiology and the British Institute of Engineers. He was a follow of the royal society of Medicne. the Institute of Electronics and member of the Faculty of Homoeopathy.

Between 1922 and August 1954 he contributed many papers on homoeopathic or bio-chemical research to the British Homoeopathic journal. In 1936 he published a monograph entitled 'Low' Potencies of Homoeopathy, Dr. Boyd proved by the experiments on his Emanometer beyond any shadow of doubt that presence of a power exists in 30th potency of Mercuric chloride He thus vindicated the clinical insight of Hahnemann. who could not explain how such an inconcevably diluted solution as the 30th potency, lacking even a single molicule of the original drug. could cure the sick person.

Dr. Hahnemann used the terms 'spiritual vital force, and later 'Dynamis' to explain the Phenomenon of cure based on the Law of similars. The bio physical or the dynamic state of the sick person should be similar to the dynamic influence produced by the drug on a healthy prover to neutralise the vital disoder. Ofcourse, the Law of Similars as enunciated by Hahnemann belonged to the biological sphere, and therfore, could not satisfy the scientific minds who think in terms of physics and chemistry. It was Dr. Body who came forward to prove by experimental. Verifications that the power released by drug is a kind of emanation which could be measured and applied.

Earlier. Geoge starr, Abrahm, Stearns and others in U.S.A were on this tract. They found that a homoeopathic remedy has palpable effects on the sick persons the eye reflex and percussion note and pulse show definite effects of the homoeopathic remedy. Dr. W.R. Mc Crae has shown by means of his electrophysical tests that a group remedy could be found which leads to the selection of the correct homoeopathic remedy. Dr. Boericke has shown by his floculation test that the emanation of the sick person are similar to the emanations of the correct homoeopathic remedy.

Dr. Boyd discovered that there are some sort of emanations produced by homoeopathically prepared drugs which act only on the tissues to which each individual drug is fitted and only on the folks to whom it is tuned. There is evidence of a kind suggesting that disorganisation of healthy state of body is due to effects on people or emanations from substance they take or sources they take to which they are exposed. If this is so, what a vista is opened out for finer methods of diseases this discovery of Divining Methods, flocculation tests, electro-physical tests and radiosthesia are latest devices for further advancement of Homoeopathy to prevent and cure innumerable acute and chronic diseases mildly, quickly and permanently. Then only the mission of Hahnemann shall be fulfilled.

(The Named Who Introduced Homoeopathic in India)

(xiv) Dr. John Mariin Honigbrger, M.D.

The history of Homoeopathy in India is linked with the name of a French man Dr. John Martin Honigberger.

Dr. Honigberger was born at Krostadt, a town in Transylvania in Rumania, After passing his M.D. with distinction, he became a successful practitioner.

Dr. Honigberger arrived at lahore in 1829-30 and was later invited to treat the maharaja Ranjit singh of Punjab, who happened to be seriously ill. Later he stayed on in Lahore even after the death A Maharaj Ranjeet Singh. He Wrote a book about his experiences thirty five years in the east. He came from his native country, Transylvania through Levant, Egypt, Arabia and persia and then on to India. He resided for about 15 years in the Punjab and returned via Afghanistan, Bokharo and Russia.

He lift his native town in 1815. He visited jerusalem and as a physician to the Governor of Tocat he travelled with him to Asia minor. His first patient at lahore was the adopted son of General Allard. His fame spread only when he treated and cured some soliders who had been bitten by a mad jackal and were beginning to show singns of hydrophobia after some soldiers had already died of the bite.

Maharaja Ranjit singh was impressed by him when he treated his favourite horse of its bad ulcers of the leg. The Maharaja had come to have great confidence in him and made him accept the management of a gunpowder manufactory and also a gunstock establishment. Being homesick, Honigberger went back in 1834 Next year he went to paris and met Dr. Hahnemann. He bought a large quantity of homoeopathic medicines from Hahnemann's pharmacist, Lehmann of Kothen.

In the years 1836 he happend to go to vienna and caught an infection of cholera which was raging there. He saved himself by taking Ipecac. every half an hour. He was impressed greatly by the results of homeopathic medicine both in himself and others.

He decided to start his practice at Constantinople. He treated cases of Plague with Agnatia. He was led to use it because he saw Armenians there wering a string tied to a bean of Ignatia and it seemed to give them protection where so many people were dying every day.

He also treated a case of haemorrhage with Aranea diadema which brought him both name and fame. It is said that he had a very lucrative practice.

On learning that Maharaja Ranjit Singh wanted him back, he reached Lahore in 1839in the company of General Centure after an adventurous journey.

After the death of the Maharaja his position and influence waned till Sardar jawahar singh came to power, and restored him to his former position as Court physician and Director of the gun Powder mill. In 1849, the punjb was annexed by Sir Henry Lawrence. With the abolition of the singh Darbar he had to relinquish his post. He was granted a pension. Later he returned to his country.

It is not when he died, but his life was full of adventure and pioneering. He was the first man to introduce the name. Dr. Samuel Hahnemann and his healing art to India.