GROWTH, DEVELOPMENT, PRESENT STATE AND STATUS OF HOMOEOPATHY IN INDIA

Andhra Pradesh

Homoeopathy was first introduced into Andhra Pradesh by Lanka Rama Rao of Kakinada. He started a school in which he taught Homoeopathy in the local language Telugu and also wrote books in Telgu. He, thus, helped to spread Homoeopathy. Another stalwart was Y. Ganapathi Rao of Kakinada.

Out of his enthusiasm and faith in the system, he left his job and spent everything in imrpoving the pharmaceutical side. Still another pioneer is Dr. K Sambaiah of Tenali. He was the first qualified homoeopath in the State. One more bright star in the firmament was the late Dr. N.N. Jaisoorya M.D., son of the celebrated national leader, and poetess, Smt. Sarojini Naidu. Though he qualified in modern medicine from Europe, he took to Homoeopathy and vigorously propagated it. A few more like Col Ramana Rao, Dr. T. Janakiram and Dr. Bhumanna, who all held high qualifications in modern medicine, became converts to Homoeopathy, Col. Ramana Rao was the Principal of the Madras Homoeopathic Medical College, which had to be closed ultimately and its students were transferred to the Andhra Provincial Homoeopathic Medical College and Hospital, Gudivada.

Another physician, who spread Homoeopathy in the State is Dr. S, Chandra Mouli, M.B.B.S. ofVijayawada, also a convert. He served as a Member of Committee for reorganising the indigenous systems of medicine including Homoeopathy of composite Madras State. He also remained as a Member of the Andhra Board of Homoeopathy, and also of the Board of Examiners.

Mention must also be made of the great services of the late Dr. M. Guru Raju. He went to U.S.A. in the year 1936 and had his post-graduate course under Dr. Spalding and Dr. Roberts. Later on, he founded the Andhra Provincial Homoeopathic College and Hospital in 1945, which was subsequently recognised by the Government in 1958. The Andhra Pradesh Ayurvedic and Homoeopathic Medical Practitioners' Act came into existence in 1956, Under this Act, all the existing homoeopathic practitioners in the State were registered: in three categories,. viz. 'A', 'B' and 'C'. Under class 'A.' come the qualified medical practitioners and under class 'B' the practitioners having attained the age of 40 years with 10 years and more of practice in Homoeopathy. Under class 'C' those practitioners were till recently being provisionally registered whose age was less than 40 years and had the practical experience of ten years, but they were required to sit for a qualifying examination held by the Board for Homoeopathy, within 3 years from the date of their registration. On qualifying this examination they were put under class 'B' of the Register. This type of registration has been stopped now.

The first Andhra Board of Homoeopathy constituted under the Act was a nominated one.

The State is well to do in Homoeopathic teachings. At present, there are four homoeopathic medical colleges, three Govt. and one private, following the syllabus of D.H.M.S. course. Two of them have now started M.B.S. degree course. The oldest college of Andhra Pradesh is at Gudiwada. Housed in its own large building it is having a 50 bedded hospital with out-patient clinics. In this college in all these years several items of clinical research have been carried out with the financial assistance given by the Government of India. The other two Government Homoeopathic Medical Colleges are Jaisoorya Homoeopathic Medical College and Potti Sriramulu Homoeopathic Medical

College both located in Hyderabad.

A private homoeopathic medical college at Rajahmundry founded by Sri Boda Venkataratnam, recognised by Government, is having a 20 bedded homoeopathic hospital with out-patient clinics attached to the college. Hospitalisation in Homoeopathy is still at an infant stage in the State. For the present, there are two Government Homoeopathic Hospitals, one 10 bedded and other 50 bedded, with large out patient clinics at Hyderabad to the students of the Jaisoorya Homoeopathic Medical College and the Potti Sriramulu Homoeopathic Medical College.

There is another small hospital with out patient clinics at a foremost remote village in Mugullapallie in Warangal District run by the Church of South India, to cater to the rural masses of nearly fifteen hamlets.

There are innumerable charitable and free homoeopathic dispensaries in the entire State among which Dr. C, L. Modi's run by an association, the Jaisoorya Smaraka Sanghm, financed and assisted by the Lions' Club, Dayananda Charitable Dispensary etc. deserves special mention. The Modi's Charitable Homoeopathic Dispensary is the foremost one which receives an average out patients of 200 a day in the city. In addition, there are numerous homoeopathic free dispensaries aided and run by local bodies and Municipalities in the State.

Mention must be made of the three homoeopathic free dispensaries run by the local Ramakrishna Mission and the Mission at Visakhapatnam, Rajahmundry and Hyderabad. The Jambagh Dispensary which had more than 200 out patient a day was taken over by the Andhra Government from the Andhra Pradesh Homoeopathic Association and later on developed into a 10 bedded hospital. Many homoeopathic books have been published in Andhra Pradesh. Nearly 150 homoeopathic books and booklets from English were translated into Telugu, Hindi, and Urdu, The pioneers in the field were the late Y. Ganapathi and Lanka Rama Rao. Dr. V. Venkataraman Sarma has written and or translated nearly 70 works and so, this deserves a special mention. Dr. N. Kameswararao, Dr. Narayana Murthy., Dr. Terraju, Dr. T. Sreerama Rao, Dr. G. Subbaraju are a few of the authors who wrote when the system was in its nascent stage and their works have helped very much in the growth of the system in the region.

In Andhra Pradesh, the first pharmacy and manufacturing unit in Homoeopathy was started at Kakinada by late Y. Ganapathi Rao and Lanka Rama Rao in 1930. Similarly in Hyderabad, at the same time. Dr. Abdul Faizal started a store and small pharmacy. Subsequently, many homoeopathic stores were started throughout the State, M/s. Ramakrishna Homoeo Stores and Pharmaceuticals deserves a special mention. In recent years, a few pharmaceutical industries have also come up in the State.

There is a rich history of homoeopathic journalism. The first journal in English and Telugu was started in Kakinada by the late Dr. Lanka Rama Rao. Subsequently several gurnals were started and closed for want of . financial assistance. At present there are six journals in existence known as: "Homoeo Dynamic"—English (Monthly), "Heal Ttlyself"—English (Quarterly), "Homoeo News"—English and Telugu (Quarterly), "Homoeo Reporter"—Telugu and English (Monthly), "Homoeopathy Kanthikiran" —Telugu (Monthly) and "Vaidhya Sevak" —Telugu.

The first State Conference in Mandapet was held in 1932 with Dr. Lanka Rama Rao, as President where a State level association was started. There were several conferences on district level, taluka level and State levels. Two All India Homoeopathic. Conferences were held—one at Rajahmundry and other at Hyderabad, in the: years: 1955 and 1968 respectively.

The Committees appointed by the Government were'the Justice Somiah Committee and Justice Satyanarayana Rao Committee. Late Dr. M, Gururaju was on the Dave Committee appointed by the Central Government. The Government of A.P. constituted a college Examination Committee to in example the two colleges in the city to recommend to the Government if they deserve recognition. Dr. T. Seshachary, Dr. M. Kutumba Rao and Kirshnamurthy were the members, of the Dr. P. S. Committee.

The Government of Andhra Pradesh has placed the subject of Homoeopathy under the Health Minister who is assisted by the Director of Board cf Indian Medicine and the Registrar, Board of Homoeopathy and Ayurveda. There are still in existence two Acts in the State, one for erstwhile Hyderabad and the other for Andhra Pradesh. The Government proposes to intergrate these two Acts into one. The Board for Homoeopathy had Dr. Visweswara Sastry, as the first President and later on has Sri G. Hanumantha Reddi as the President and Special Officer, Indian Medicine Department. According to the information supplied by the Director, Board of Indian Medicine and the Registrar, Board of Ayurveda and Homoeopathy, Government of Andhra Pradesh there are 16 Government dispensaries in the State :

1. Central Government Dispensary, Subsidised Dispensaries and 6 Non-subsidised ones. There are 9 Municipal Dispensaries, and 3 run by Panchyat Samithis, 16 Grant-in-aid dispensaries. Government has sanctioned 40 honorary Rural Medical Officers' post and :has selected the candidates from the institutionally trained practitioners.

There were 4932 Registered practitioners in the State on 1-1-80. Out of them 1090 were institutionally trained practitioners.

In the Telangana region, for a long time the Bilgrami family was prominent in the service of Homoeopathy. Their services also received patronage from the ruler of Hyderabad State. H.E.H. Nizam patronised Homoeopathy by according recognition to Homoeopathic system in his State as early as 1880. At that time now here in India the Homoeopathic system of medicine was recognised by any sovereignity of the Government in any State.

Dr. B. K.Phatak, an Ophathalmic Surgeon, who was Principal of Dr. Jaisoorya Homoeopathic College, Dr.Bhoomanna, Sri Tatachari of the Defence Department and Dr. N. M. Jaisoorya (who was endearingly called Baba) took seriously to Homoeopathy. Dr. Jaisoorya and Dr. Bhoomanna were on the Board of Examiners for many years in Telangana. Dr. N. M. Jaisoorya was prominently the greatest homoeopathic physician of the Hyderabad State.

Assam

Though "Assam has not got a long rich history of Homoeopathy, the system had got its strong hold in this State by the middle of the current century. The existence of Homoeopath can be traced as far back as the later part of the last century when it was introduced into the State by the western teaplanters. They simply took it as a philanthropie mission. Gradually it spread through the erudite lay practitioners and earned popularity throughout the State, initially among the tea garden employees, most of whom were domiciled in the State. History reveals that Dr.

Boogeswar Dutta was the founder of homoeopathic movement in Assam. In the year 1946 he published two books 'Homoeo Sudarsan' and `Radio-Active Treatment of Homoeopathy' in Assamese language. These publications flashed a new light on the homoeopathic treatment throughout the State. Consequently, an association of the scattered homoeopath in Assam was formed under the banner of 'Cachar Homoeopathic Association' in 1947 and the system was much popularised in this region. Simultaneously, the contribution of the Chintamoni Homoeo Hall of Dr. Indra Mohan Saha of Silchar aided much to popularise Homoeopathy in this area. Meanwhile, Dr. Debena Bora and Dr. Dutta founded the 'Assam Homoeo Research and Public Health Association in 1946 which was renamed as 'All Assam. Homoeopathic Medical Association' in 1967. In Homoeopaths throughout the State extended their co-operation to the Association and the Government of Assam approved it.

Dr. Dutta established another institution, the first Homoeopathic School with the name the 'Assam Homoeo Research School of Medicine and Hospital' at Golaghat town. Now the name of this institution has been retitled as the Assam Homoeo Research Institute.

The Assam Homoeo Research and Public Association received the affiliation under All India Homoeopathic Medical Association in the year 1948. The Association submitted a plan to the Government for establishment of homoeopathic college, hospitals, dispensaries, a mobile dispensary and a laboratory throughout the State.

An Enquiry Committee was constituted by the State in the year 1950 with (i) Sjt. Rajendra Nath Barua, Ex. Dy. Speaker of Assam Legislative Assembly, (ii) I.G.C.H., Col. A.N. Chopra, and (iii) Dr. Rudra Kanta Sarma, as members. This Committee made an enquiry to the only homoeopathic institution at Golaghat in the same year. There was; held a long discussion with Dr. Bhogeswar Dutta and Dr. Debena Bora. As a result, the then Dy. Speaker, Sjt. Rajendra Nath Barua and renowned lawer Sjt, Lakshmipram Changkakoti were empowered to frame a Homoeopathic Bill in 1951.

Sjt. Barua introduced the 'Assam Homoeopathic Medicine Bill in the Assembly in 1953, which was passed by the Assembly and published in the Assam Gazettee inviting public opinion upon it. In 1955, the 'Assam Homoeopathic Medicine Act, 1955' was passed by the Assembly. In the year 1958, the Assam Homoeopathic Medicine Rules, 1958 were also passed. The Board of Homoeopathic System of Medicine, Assam has been constituted under this Act.

Dr. Dutta, with his own capital, established the Assam Homoeo Research Laboratory at Golaghot in the year 1953, to show the probability of opening botanical gardens in Assam and manufacturing homoeopathic medicines out of biological resources of Assam.

In 1955, Dr. Dutta started a homoeopathic hospital with 12 sick-beds just near the Research Laboratory. The inauguration was performed by the then Health Minister of Assam The first Board of Homoeopathic System of Medicine, Assam was constituted by the Government in 1956.

The marching homoeopathic movement suffered a serious setback in March 1962, when all the buildings and equipments of the Assam Homoeo Research School of Medicine and Hospital were completely gutted by fire. The institution was, however, run in a temporary building and more than 300 students got the H.L. M.P. diploma from this institution."

At present there are about six homoeopathic institutions in the State but most of them have no standard curriculm. The oldest one is the Assam Homoeo Research School of Medicine and Hospital at Golaghat, the others are at Gauhati, Nowgong, Jorhat and Silchar. Though, there is not a single Government Homoeopathic Medical college, hospital or dispensary there are a few homoeopathic dispensaries run by the Local Self Govenment in urban and rural areas. Very recently, the Silchar Mahakuma Parishad has established four dispensaries. The Karimganj Mahakuma Parishad has also taken up a scheme of the manner.

There are two types of registered practitioners of Homoeopathy in Assam: (i) Those who are institutionally qualified termed as 'A' class and (ii) Those having a long experience in practice who are registered under 'B' class. The total of both the categories of registered practitioners was 971 in the beginning of the year 1980. Of them 25 physicians were under 'A' class and the rest under 'B' class. Besides there arc lots of practitioners who are practising without registration,

With regard to the publication of journals the earliest can be traced in 1950 as 'Homoeopathy', a quarterly journal in Bengali from Hailakandi, Cachar edited by Dr. Debendra Nath Deb and published by Dr. Kumud Rarijan Paul of Hailalkandi There is one Assamese Journal named 'Homoeo mukhpatra published from Gauhati since July 1975 and the latest One is the 'Homoeo'Bullein' a Bengal fortnightly published under the auspices of the HMAI, Silchar branch.

Bihar

Bihar has been a major homoeopathic province, perhaps the second next of Bengal so far as the number of homoeopathic practitioners is concerned. With the advent of lndependence, came the days of recognition of Homoeopathy by the Provinces, turned into States. At the critical period well-knit organisation to safeguard the interest of Homoeopathy by all means became a necessity.

Dr. K.N. Patil of Gaya, organised the first conference of the All India and the Bihar Provincial 'Homoeopathic Association at Gaya in the year 1930. Later, at a request from Dr. Rajendra Prasad and Babu Jagjivan Ram, Pt. Binodanand Jha, the then Health Minister of Bihar constituted the Bihar Homoeopathic Enquiry Comunittee. A Bill was proposed but before it could.be taken, up the Assembly was dissolved. With the formation of the new Congress Government in Bihar in 1952, the Bill was again considered and passed in 1953. The Bihar Development of Homoeopathic System of Medicine Act in 1953 to provide for the development of Homoeopathic System of Medicine and to regulate its teaching and practice in the State of Bihar has come into force with effect from March 1, 1955. A State Board of Homoeopathic Medicine was constituted by Government consisting of one President and sixteen members in Government consisting of one president and sixteen members in Government. In the beginning, the Board was engaged in enlistment and registration of homoeopathic practitioners. In the year I960 the Board took up the teaching aspect of the Act and framed regulations for recognition of homoeopathic colleges and for the first time the Board recognised three homoeopathic colleges for imparting instruction for the three year Diploma Course in Medicine and Surgery. These colleges are known as (i) R.B.T.S. Homoeopathic College, Muzaffarpur, (ii) Sinha Homoeopathic Medical College, Laheria Sarai (Darbhanga) and (iii) K.N.H.Medical College, Bhagalpur. The first batchitron of the successful students of D.M.S. (3 years course) came out in the year 1961. Sub. sequently under the instructions of the Government of India, the Board upgraded the course to four years (leading to Diploma in the

Homoeopathic Medicine and Surgery) from the the session 1967-68 and the first batch of successful students of four years, D.H.M.S. course was turned out in the year 1971 and since then only the four years diploma course is in vogue. Recently degree and graded of degree courses have also been started in some of the colleges in Bihar.

The Board awards Diploma in Medicine and Surgery to the candidates who undertake a regular course of study in the colleges, the recognised by Board. The diploma course. extends over a period of three years followed by an internship of four months, in a hospital recognized for the purpose by the board The mininiuin qualification for admission is Matriculation or its equivalent.

At present, the Bihar Development of Homoeopathic System of Medicine Act, 1953 has been amended and the power of recognising homoeopathic colleges in the State and holding examinations and publishing results of the same has been vested with the University of, Bihar, Muzaffiarpur and all the Homoeopathic Colleges of the State are under the University of Bihar and the Board has been directed by the State Government not to hold examinations and publish results of the same. At present there are 26 homoeopathic colleges in the State.

The number of Registered homoeopathic practitioners is about 16,000, out of whom more than 4000 are qualified homoeopathic practitioners holding D.M.S. and D.H.M.S. qualifications and the rest have been registered on the basis of eminence and length of practice. There are about 74 State Homoeopathic Dispensaries which are purely managed by the State Government.

Chandigarh

This beautiful city, has a unique position on the map of India since it is the Capital of two States and one Union Territory of Northern India viz. Haryana, punjab and Chandigarh It acquires the special importance geographically too and has cirtically acquired the status of a "SANGAM" for the people of Haryana, Punjab and Himachal Pradesh.

To meet the challenge of the day, the local homoeopathic medical practitioners went a head with their plans and brought on the map a bright sparkling star. The Homoeopathic Medical College at Chandigarh with initiative taken by its founder-member. Dr. J.B D.Castro. This college proved to be an important source of inspiration and encouragement when the staff of the college took upon their shoulders the responsibility of imparting training both within and outside the boundaries of college to students and practising homoeopathic doctors on the true lines of teachings of great master Hahnemann Consequently, a course of free lecture series was arranged for Registered Medical Practitioners in the year 1976. This activity, in turn, has resulted in strengthening the ties of brother-hood amongst the homoeonaths here.

Delhi

Dr. Madhab Chand Banerjee, L.M.S. was perhaps the first regular homoeopathic medical' practitioners in Delhi. He started his practice in 1909 and was very popular. The late Dr. K.G. Banerjee popularly known as Kristo Babu, and Dr. Das are remembered even now.

In 1920, Raisahib Dr. Daya Shankar Kayastha who had obtained M.D. (Michigan) U.S.A., shifted his practice from Bhopal to Delhi. He had very good practice for several years and taught the subject to a number of officials in the Government of India by holding regular classes in the Central Secretariat, and later at his own clinic in Chandni' Chowk. About the same time. Dr. Yudhvir Singh also started his practice in Chandni Chowk, Delhi. He first started a free homoeo- pathic dispensary with the help of Mir Mohd. Hussain Sahib, Municipal Commissioner in, 1928. Thereafter a large number of practitioners set up their private practice and a number of free dispensaries were opened, some of them aided by the Delhi Municipal Committee, the then Delhi District Board and the Delhi Administration. Following the partition of India, a number of homoeopathic practitioners from Punjab came and settled down in Delhi. Among them the late Dr. Diwaii Jai Chand and the late Dr. V.D. Kashyap soon became distinguished in their Work and gave a Help to Homoeopathy in Delhi. Dr. Yudhvir Singh, as Health Minister of Delhi, got the 'Delhi Homoeopathic Act' passed in 1956 which gave official recognition to Homoeopathic System in Delhi. Among the past stalwarts of Homoeoeathy in Delhi, mention may be made of late Dr. Rup Narain, Rabinder Kumar, P.S. Sehgal, Bishamber Dass and P. N. Bhatnagar.

The Delhi Homoeopathic Act was passed in 1956 and came into force on 1-10-1956 through the good offices of Dr. Yudhvir Singh who was the Health Minister of the short-lived Legislative Assembly in Delhi in those days. Under the Act, a Board of Homoeopathic and Biochemic System of Medicine' Delhi was established in November 1961. It was meant to regulate the homoeopathic education and registration of homoeopaths in Delhi. It has 6 elected members and 3 nominated members.

The Board of Homoeopathic andBiocheinic System of Medicine, Delhi prescribed a 4-year course of studies, after completion of which a Diploma in Homoeopathic Science was to be awarded. Wilh a view to prepare the cadre of teachers/examiners etc., the Board deciced to conduct a Diploma Examination allowing private candidates to take the final examination for the first three years beginning from 1965. A large number of private practitioners from all over India and one from Sri Lanka availed of this opportunity and they were awarded D.H.S. Diploma, which was authorised to be at par with the regular institutional diploma of four years for all purpose, and no distination was to be made between the two. This full-fledged private examination with the award of the Diploma for a limited period was the only one of its kind provided under any Homoeopathic Act. In other places under different State Acts, either an elementary examination like the Cartificate in Homoeopathic Practice Examination in U.P. or an oral examination for D.M.S. for a certain category of practitioners in West Bengal was held prior or preparatory to the starting and functioning of regular educational institutions. At present there are about 1500 practitioners on the Register of the Board of Homoeopathic and Biochemic System of Medicine, Delhi. Of whom about 275 are under class 'B' and the rest being under class 'A',

There is only one college, popularly known as "Nehru Homoeopathic Medical College and Hospital" (with 100 beds now) situated in Defence Colony, and named after the late Pandit Motilal Nehru, was started in 1967 by Dr. Yudhvir Singh Charitable Homoeopathic Trust. In 1972 the college with all its equipments and property was handed over to the Delhi Administration and it is now a Government Institution. It conducts a 4-years' diploma course designated as D.H.M.S. with an annual intake of 60 students. For the first 3 or 4 years evening classes meant for persons in employment were also conducted here. These have since been discontinuted. The Government is planning to start degree course in this college in the next session.

The headquarters of the Central Government being at Delhi, some of the institutions run or aided by the Central Government have their headquarters here. The Central Council of Research in Indian Medicine and Homoeopathy had its headquarters here with a number of research units located at different cities in India. In Delhi, one Research Centre is located in the Nehru Homoeopathic Medical College, and another at the All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi. The Headquarters of the newly formed Central Council of Homoeopathy established under the Homoeopathy Central Council Act,1973 is also located at Delhi.

There is a good number of Homoeopathic Dispensaries in Delhi. Of them a number of dispensaries have been started by the Munici pal Corporiation of Delhi and the New Delhi Municipal Committee. The Central Government have also been running about 7 dispensaries units in various Government colonies under the Central Government Health Scheme, for the benefit of Central Government servants. About 100 free and charitable dispensaries are functioning scattered in almost all the localities of Delhi. Of these, the largest number under one managenient are being run by Dr. Yudhvir Singh Homoeopathic Charitable Trust which was founded in 1928 and registered in 1942. Most of the dispensaries are being run from the funds of Charitable Trust, particularly,, of the Jain Community and the Delhi Corporation and the Delhi Administration.

The Headquarters of the two erstwhile All India Associations, namely, the All India Homoeopathic Medical Association and the All India Institute of Homoeopathy were located at Delhi, till November 1975. Presently, the Headquarters office of the latter is still in Delhi.

At present there are two local monthly journals known as the: 'Hahnemannian Homoeopathic Sandesh' and the 'Homoeopathic Heritage'. The former is published by the Delhi Homoeopathic Medical Association and the latter by Messrs B. Jain Publishers of New Delhi.

There are a large number of homoeopathic chemists in Delhi, catering to the needs of Delhi, and the neighbouring States, such as, Punjab, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, U.P. and Rajasthan, The medicines sold are both imported and made in India mostly from Calcutta. Messrs l.R. Bhandari & Sons, one of the direct importers of German medicines,have been the first to establish:,their own laboratory located in Faridabad near Delhi under the name and style of 'Bhandany Homoeo Laboratories' for the manufacture of Homoeopathic medicines.

During the last 10 years, Delhi has become the main publication centre of homoeopathic books in India. Almost all the classical books of Homoeopathy in English have been reprinted by Messrs. B. Jain Publishers, Jain Publishing Co. and World Homoeopathic links and distributed by Harjeet & Co. These' are being exported and sold back to the courttries where'they had been originally published; namely, U.S.A. and U.K. as well as other-parts of the world.

Delhi has contributed three Hony. Homoeopathic physiciansto the' President of' India, namely, Padmashri Dr. K. G; Saxsna, Dr. JugalKishore and Dr. Diwan Harish Chand. Dr. Yudhvir singh has been honoured with the conferment of Padma Bhaushan in 1967 as Republic Day Awards. The first International Homoeopathic Congress in India was held Delhi in l967 and the second in 1977.

Gujarat

In Gujarat, Dr. P.P. Nanavaty of Bombay was the first to introduce Homoeopathy in Gujarat. The 'Gujarat Homoeopathc Soceity' was organized by him and a Trust was registered in 1889. In 1896, Dr. Nanavaty came down to Ahmedabad from Bombay and started homoeopathic practice there. He persuaded Seth Mansukhbhai Bhagubhai, mill-owner of Ahmedabad and established a charitable homoeopathic dispensary which is still functioning successfully. In 1909 D. Trikamlal A. Shah took his M.D. degree from New York Homoeopathic Medical College. At his inspiration Dr. Ramprasad M. Patel went to Calcutta to learn Homoeopathy in 1918-19 and graduated from the Calcutta Homoeopathic College, After completing his study, he established a Homoeopathic Pharmacy' at Ahmedabad.

In 1929, the 'Gujarat Homoeopathic Society' was reorganized by Dr. T.A. Shah and the Society ran a college for three years and a Trust was registered which was closed down after 1938. After Dr. T. A. Shah, Dr. B.P. Shah took over, the charge of the charitable dispensary and worked there till 1963. Dr. B.P. Shah had started his life as a clerk in the charitable dispensary, but studied medicine and got the L.C.P.S. diploma and practised Homoeopathy till 1963.

In South Gujarat, Dr. M. N. Apte, M.B.B.S. was converted to Homoeopathy about 1930 and practised in Surat. Between 1930- 40, a great. Sanskrit scholar, Dr. Benoytosh Bhattacharya, M.A., Ph.D., Director of the Oriental Institute, adopted Homoeopathy and practised it at Baroda with remarkable success. Among his numerous patients was one Seth Girdharilal Parikh who donated seven lakhs of rupees for establishing a charitable trust dispensary at Baroda which is still running well. In Baroda, Dr. B. Bhattacharya moved the benign Government of late Shrimant Maharaja Sir Sayajirao Gaek wad to enact the first Homoeopathic Act of 1932, The Maharaja acceded to it and recognized Homoeopathy. Dr. G. B. Patel of Navasari was nominated the first Homoeopathic member of the Baroda State Medical Council. Thus, Baroda was one of the first State in India to recognise Homoeopathy.

In 1938, Dr. M. H. Udani, M. D. Hom of Rajkot appeared as a prominent homoeopath. He wrote a thesis on the 'Utility of ilomoeopathy' which was published in 1938,and was taught by Homoeopathic Postal Institute ofBallygange, Calcutta.

In 1940, Dr. Maganlal Desai, after successful practice in Calcutta for over 10 years, came to Gujarat and settled down as a homoeopath in South Gujarat. At the same time, Dr. N.N. Shah started practising Homoeopathy at Ahmedabad. He published one pamphlet called 'Upchar Kala', and popularised Homoeopathy in North Gujarat and Saurashtra. In the same year, Dr. R. K. Desai, D.M.S,, came down to Ahmedabad and soon became popular as a homoeopath. He organised the homoeopathic profession of Gujarat and a branch of All India Institute of Homoeopathy was established there. He was also elected as a member of the Court of Examiners in Homoeopathy at Bombay, and he and Dr. Apte were elected to the Bombay State Homoeopathic Board. After the bifurcation of Bombay State the Gujarat Homoeopathic Institute was organised.

After formation of the Gujarat State in 1960, the Gujarat State Homoeopathic Board was established under the presidentship of Dr. R.K. Desai in 1961. In the year 1963, the Gujarat State Homoeopathic Act was enforced and a new Council was established under the presidentship of Dr. Kantilal B. Shah of Bombay. The Council was given very wide powers in the Homoeopathic Act as well as by the Hon'ble Health Minister, but it failed to exercise its powers. In March 1967, the Council was re-constituted of which Dr. Maganbhai H. Bhatt of Jamnagar was elected as president. In 1966 registrations were granted to the homoeopaths under the Homoeopathic Act of 1963. In 1972 the Homoeopathic Council was reconstituted with Dr. Anil Bhatia as president for a couple of months. Thereafter again Dr. Bhatt took over as president. Dr. R.B. Mehta was appointed as the first Homoeopathic Adviser to the Government of Gujarat for one year in June, 1972. He was succeeded by Dr. Pachhigar of Surat for one year. Since then no appointment seems to have been made against this post. An O.P.D. for Homoeopathy has been opened by the Government in the Civil Hospital at Ahmedabad.

Two homoeopathic colleges are running in Gujarat, one at Savli and another at Anand. At Ahmedabad at present four charitable dispensaries are functioning. At Surat the Municipal Corporation is also running a homoeopathic dispensary. At Baroda, Visnagar, Anand, Sarsa, Jamnagar, Kapadwani etc., several charitable homoeopathic dispensaries are working. On the organisational side, several associations had been functioning. Among them, the Gujarat Rajya Homoeopathic Institute had been the most well-organised association. The Saurashtra Homoeopathic Medical Association has been functioning since 1952. In Surat the 'Homoeopathic Chikitsa Jagat' had been organised by Dr. Pachhigar, Kutch Homoeopathic Association was also working side by side. Homoeo Mission was also organised in 1950 or so by Dr. Gor, a retired police officer, who had also tried to run a college but it had to be closed down. These associations had been functioning in their own way to popularise Homoeopathy. With the advent of the national organisation of homoeopathas the Homoeopathic Medical Association of India) local branches of the H.M.A.I. have been organised in South Gujarat, North Gujarat, Saurshtra, Kheda and Ahmedabad and the Gujarat State Branch of the Homoeopathic Medical Association of India has also been established.State level conferences of homoeopaths had been organised in Gujarat at different times. In 1964 an All India Homoeopathic Congress was held in Ahmedabad.

At present in Gujarat, there are nearly 400 institutionally trained homoeopaths and about 200 registered and 300 enlisted homoeopathic practitioners. However several laymen are also practising Homoeopathy.

Haryana

The Punjab Homoeopathic Practitioners Act was enacted in 1965 but the Council of Homoeopathic System of Medicine, Punjab was not nominated till September 1966. The Council could not function as the reorganisation of Punjab on 1-11-66 into Haryana, Punjab, Himanchal Pradesh and Union Territory of Chandigarh took place and so separate Councils for Haryana, Punjab, etc., had to be constituted. The Government of Haryana nominated an incomplete Council of Homoeopathic System of Medicine on 31-3-1970'and later on completed the nominations as laid down in the Act. The Rules and Regulations took nearly five years to be drafted and gazetted. The registration work started in 1975 with a part time Registrar. Now there is a wholetime Registrar and the registration of practitioners under Part 'B' has since been completed and, stopped.

Haryana State came into existence, on 1-11-1966. The area was backward in all respects though now it is a progressive State. Homoeopathy was practised only in a few towns. When the practitioners were initially registered in the State, the number of qualified homoeopaths there was not likely to be more than fifteen, besides an approximate number of registered practitioners under Part 'B' being 3000 on the Register of the Council of Homoeopathic System of Medicine Haryana.

There are a few pharmacies but no homoeopathic college nor hospital. A number of free homoeopathic dispensaries are being run in some towns. The Government of Haryana has allocated Rs. 2 crores for the development of Homoeopathy. There is also a proposal for opening 20 Government Homoeopathic Dispensaries. The Deputy Commissioner of Gurgaon to begin with has opened 8 free Homoeopathic Dispensaries in Gurgaon'District.

A quarterly journal 'The Homoeo journal, was being published from Ambala which has now been discontinued due to financial difficulties.

Jammu and Kashmir

The position of Homoeopathy is rather deplorable in this mountainous State Jammu and Kashmir, There is no homoeopathic hospital, dispensary or institution in the State. The number of qualified practitioners is very low, they may be hardly twenty or so. Only in the two big cities of the State viz. Srinagar and Jammu there are homoeopathic practitioners. There is no big chemist's shop where one can get the supply of medicines required. In villages people prefer Ayurvedic treatment and still believe in sunerstition,

Karnataka

While Homoeopathy was introduced into India, in 1810 and 1839 by two German Physicians in Calcutta and Punjab, Karnataka had its Share of Homoeopathic tradition when 3 German Missionaries : Rev. Leiner, Greinerand Hebich landed in Mangalore in 1934. They trained many educated people like teachers, lawyers. Government officers, engineers and others in the art of training the sickpeople .through Homoeopathy. During these days there were hardly any hospitals, L.F. dispensaries and trained doctors to serve the suffering masses, especially in the rural areas.

Later on, while Homoeopathy was gaining gradual popularity, Karnataka was fortunate to have Father Augustus Muller of Westphalia, Germany, to land in Bangalore and joined the Staff of St. Aloysius College there. He owed his life to Homoeopathy when allopathy failed to cure him. He was a fully trained homoeopathic physician. One of his grandparents used to be Hahnemann's teacher in school. Soon he started training his pupils in Homoeopathy and treating the public. The response was so ready and rapid that he was obliged to open a regular dispensary in 1880 which he named" The Homoeopathic poor Dispensary". This Instiution has been growing from strength to strength till now and is very popular.

In 1902 when there was an outbreak of the much dreaded Bubonic plague, Fr. Muller quickly built a Plague Hospital in the thick of the heavy monsoon and rendered commendable service quite successfully through Homoeopathy. He also wrote several books on Homoeopatay and Biochemic medicines, His service was greatly appreciated by all sections of the public and in recognition there of, the then Government honoured him with suitable titles. After 30 years of glorious service to the suffering mankind on 1-11-1910 at the age of 69 years he returned to his Maker. After him one of his able disciples Dr. L.P. Fernandes, a qualified allopath of great distinction, whose life was a life of love and selfless service, dedicated to the poor, continued the good work till June 10, 1946. Now there is a fully qualified head of the Homoeopathic Department viz. Dr. V.T. D' Souza at this ever-expanding institution foundad by Dr. Muller. Among the several men that followed Fr. Muller's period of service mention should be made of late Bhardwaja Shiva Rao, author of 'Domestic Homoeopathy' and Christian Maben, author of 12 Tissue Remedies,' both in Kannada. In the city of Mysore, late Prof. H.C. lyengar had done his fair share of Homoeopathic service. Bangalore had the distinction of having some leading Indian and foreign homoeopathic physicians. Before the Second World War, there was an American Dr. Desmond,and a German Dr. Martin Bez among the oldtimers of Bangalore who gave an unswerving and dedicated leadership to the Homoeopathic fraternity of the State. Their leadership and the co-operation of the rest succeeded in getting recognition for Homoeopathy and Registration for its practitioners, the State Board was constituted on August 28, 1975 under the Act of 1961 consisting of 11 members. The then Minister of Health Hon'ble H. Sidaveerappa and Sri K.RS. Nayudu played the most vital roll in the formation of the Board. Since then the Board has been striving hard to improve the lot of Homoeopathy and its practitioners in the State.

There were four homoeopathic colleges in the State, namely; the Homoeopathic Medical College, Belgaum ; the Karnataka Homoeopathic Medical College, Hubli; the Homoeopathic Medical College, Dharwar and the Hahnemannian College of Homoeopathy. Banglore. The last one has been now closed down since it did not meet the standards laid down. The Court of Examiners is holding examination twice in a year. Today, Homoeopathy is widely practised in the State of Karnataka and it has become very popular. There is a 25-bedded hospital in Bangalore with an OPD attached, very creditably run by two young doctors. There are only two rural dispensaries even though there is a demand from all parts of the State for more such dispensaries.

Since 100 years Father Muller's 'Homoeo specifics' and tissue remedies are popular in Karnataka. The Mysore Homoeopathic Association was started in 1943 and later on the Bangalore Homoeopathic Association and Cooperative Society. In 1945 the All Karntaka Homoeopathic Association was formed and all the association were united in to one Institution, Homoeopathy is steadily progressing. Several conferences were held which were attended by leading Homoeopaths of India, Among other veterans well remembered are Dr. T.S. lyer who practised Homoeopathy very successfully in Bangalore before, the Second World War and even there after popularising Homoeopathy. He was also an author of a very useful book on Homoeopathy popularly known as "Beginners Guide to Homoeopathy". Another was Pasupathy lyer who also practised Homoeopathy and helpeda lot of people in Bangalore.

There are about 2000 registered homoeopathic practitioners in Karnataka. Some reputed consultants are in Bangalore. Karnatka has ten branches of HMAl and the membership is 800. The "Karnataica Homoeopathic Journal' has been established which has an ambitious plan of building a Homoeo Bhavan in Bangalore for locating a library and a research centre and rooms for VIPs. The "Karnataka Homoeopathic Bandu" is another journal published in English and Kannada.

There is one Government Homoeopathic Hospital and out-patient ward. Two village dispensaries are run by the State Government there.

In 1965 a Tribunal for registration of homoeopathic practitioners was appointed by the State Government and the First Register was published on 3-4-1969, the number of registered practitioners in Part 'A'.Part 'B'and Part C then being 1222, 27 and 467 respectively.

The Karnataka Homoeopathic Practitioners Act, 1961 came into force on July 17, 1970.

Government sanctioned the establishment of a Government Homoeopathic College in Bangalore by an order dated October 5, 1971 but the College is yet to see the light of the day. By an order dated 25-11-1971 the State Goveriiment constituted a Homoeopathic Consultative Committee for the development of Homoeopathy in the State with the Director of Health Services as Chairman and Dr. K.G. Saxena and five other persons as members. The Committee met only once or twice and is perhaps not functioning since then. Elections to the Homoeopathic Board were held in 1975 and the elected Board consisting of eleven members came into existence on 8th August 8, 1975. This Board and the Court of Examiners last nominated on 16-4-1975 are functioning.

The Government again by an order dated July 18, 1972 appointed a Committee headed by Dr. malkote to advise it for improving the indigenous systems of a medicine, Ayurved, Unani, Homoeopathy and Naturopathy in the State.

The Malkote Committee made, among others, the following recommendations :

1. There should be a ban on teaching Homoeopathy by postal institutions.

2. The State Government should finalise a pattern of assistance for maintaining and developing homoeopathic colleges.

3. The Government should also set up a model homoeopathic degree college with a homoeopathic hospital.

4. The degree colleges should be encouraged, and till such time as diploma colleges are not up-graded to degree colleges they should be maintained by State grants. Two of the best private colleges should be upgraded.

5. The Gove.rment should immediately make budget provision for starting a pharmacy.

6. The State Government should set up at least twenty homoeopathic dispensaries every year in the last year of the Fourth Five Year Plan and whole of the fifth Five Plan period.

7. Homoeopathic doctors should be posted in allopathic and I.S.M. dispensaries where work load is heavy. There should be an integrated approach in this regard in the State.

A separate post of Director of Indian Systems of Medicine in charge of Ayurveda, Unani and Homoeopathy was created in 1975 and Dr. K. Sadashiva Sharma was appointed as the first Director of Indian Medicine.

The Fourth Homoeopathic Scientific Seminar was held in Belgaum in July 1976 and was largely attended. In Karanataka A local Branches of the Homoeopathic Medical Association of India have been formed for Belgaum District, Bhadravati, Shimogo, Dharwar, Chitradluga, - Hassan,Begalkot and Gokak. The State branch is yet to be formed.

Karnataka has a glorious tradition of over a century of homoeopathic treatment, thanks to the monumental work of Father Muller, We have to continue this noble task and serve our masses with Hahnemann's Homoeopathy. This we can do to a great measure if the State Government gives full support as laid down by the past and the present Central Health Ministry. that they cured 85 percent of the patients entrusted to them.

In 1939, when the Travancore Government placed before the Legislative Assembly the said Medical bill published in the Gazette in the year 1932, and approved by the Select Committee in 1938, it was adjourned by 35 votes against 29 on the ground that it did not include Homoeopathy and other systems of medicine.

Observing tliat the official medicine (allopathy) alone cannot be propagated in Kerala, the Government of Travancore at last decided to reorganize their Medical and Public Health Department, for which they appointed a Committee headed by Dr. Thirumurthi from Madras in 1913. This Committee formulated a Medical Bill embracing all the systems of medicine existing in Kerala at that time giving equal status and recognition to all of them. This unique Bill was passed through the Legislative Assembly and becama the `Travancre Medical Practioners Act' or 1943 and recognition to Homoeopathy was accorded by nominating Dr. K.P. Raghavan Nair as the homoeopathic member to this Travancore Medical Council. More or less at this time some steps forwards the recognition of Homoeopathy were also taken by the benevolent Maharajas of the erstwhile Cochin State which forms the Central part of the Kerala State. In the same year, the General Council and State faculty of Homoeopathic Medicine, Bengal also came into existence. It was rather a supplement to the Travancore Medical Act because the schedule prescribed for homoeopathic qualification in the Travancore Act was supplemented by the Bengal Faculty.

In 1946, the Travancore Composite Medical Council consisting of a majority of allopathic doctors passed 'a resolution requesting the Government to open a homoeopathic hospital for children in Trivandrum.

In 1948, there was a move in Travancore to start a medical college and it was proposed to add a Chair for Homoeopathy also, so as to teach Homoeopathy as an optional subject in the same way as different sciences are taught in modern academic colleges. This idea was strongly supported by the 'Malayala Manorana", the foremost daily at the time in Kerala, in its leading article dated August 19, 1948. The first broadcast on Homoeopathy in India was a speech from Trivandrum Radio Station in April, 1948, in connection with the 194th birthday of Dr. Hahnemann.

In the same year, a Co-operative Society was registered for the preparation, sale and practice of homoeopathic medicines in Travuncore.

This society earned a medal in the exhibition conducted in connection with the Travancore-Cochin Co-operative Conference held in South Travancore in the year 1950.

In 1953, the said Travancore Medical Practitioners' Act of 1943 was extended to Cochin part of Kerala State with certain modifications suggested by the above said co operative society before the Select Committee in the year 1952. Thus a new Medical Act for Travancore-Cochin Medical Practitioners' Act of 1953 and a separate Medical Council was formed for Homoeopathy with Dr.M.R Govindan Pillai as the Chairman. This Act remains to be amended as "Kerala Medical Practitioners'Act with necessary changes. As per the Travancore Act, there were only 573 registered homoeopathic practitioners in the year 1947 and as per the Travancore-Cochin Act there were 2,105 in the year 1967 including 250 listed practitioners who were created by an examination conducted by the

Medical council in 1949 to remove the disabilities caused to some of the homoeopathic practitioners of Travancore by tlie said Act of 1943. Now it is assumed that there are more than 4,000 practitioners in Kerala State.

The above-said Homoeopathic Cooperative Society launched a novel Cooperative Health Service Scheme in Homoeopathy in the year 1954, by which a family paying Re. l/- only per month would get free medicine and medical attendance for all the members. It was begun in Trivandrum and extended to Shertalai in North Travancore.

In 1957, the present State of Kerala was formed and Dr. A. R. Menon took over the charge as the Health Minister. It was to this great seeker of truth that Homoeopathy is indebted in the first intance, for all its advancements in this State, for it was he who for the first time in any State in India, started a fullfledged homoeopathic dispensary at the State level and boldly extended State patronage to this System of Medicine to the extent no other Health Minister would have dared to do. Though Dr. A. R. Menon himself was an allopathic doctor and yet devoted much attention to the development of Homoeopathy in this State) at one time proves his generosity and devotion to truth as well as the efficacy of the system that already had made a beneficial impact on the public and their representatives in Government as also the irresistible charm and faith, that the public of this State have in Homoeopathy.

The seedling that was planted by Dr. A.R. Menon in 1958 was nurtured by his successors in the Health Ministry, Sri V. K., Velappan, Sri M.P. Govindan Nair, Sri B. Wellington, Sri K. M. George and above all Sri N. K. Balakrishnan. In 1968 an Assistant Directorate was formed by Sri B, Wellington for Homoeopathy in the Department of Indigenous Medicine. With due appreciation for what has been done for Homoeopathy by the previous Health Ministers, it may be asserted that the greatest benefactor and champion of Homoeopathy that the whole of the India has so far seen at the Administrators' level is in Sri N. K. Balakrishnan, who not only acknowledged and enforced parity for Homoeopathy with Allopathy and Ayuveda but also to ensure its progress, formed a separate and independent department for this system in this State in 1973 under a qualified homoeopath.

In 1958, Dr. K.G. Sexena, Homoeopathic Physician to the President of India, formally inaugurated the Athurasramam Homoeopathic Medical College at Kottayam (Kerala State) and it was a recognized homoeopathic college in Kerala State founded by an Indian Sanyasi of Kerala, by name Swami Athuradas (servant of the suffering humanity) in the year 1955. He was a naturopathic doctor in his younger day? having learned Dr. Schurssler's biochemic system of medicine and Homoeopathy. This college is aided both by the Central and State Governments. The 100 beds hospital attached to the college belongs to the Government of Kerala and probably it is the biggest college and even the biggest Homoeopathic Government Hospital in India.

In 1959, the first Government Homoeopathic Dispensary in Kerala was opened in the capital city of Trivandrum. Shortly after wards the Government graced the people by opening similar dispensaries in different parts of the State. Now there are 32 Government homoeopathic dispensaries and one college cum-hospital with 100 beds in Kerala.There are 3 leading homoeopathic institutions in Kerala conducting diploma courses. The first and the foremost, the 'Athurasramnam Homoeopathic Medical College', was started in 1958 by Shreejith Swamy Athuradas at Kurichy near Kottayam, one of the central towns in the State.

With the assistance of both the Central and State Governments, and through the laudable efforts put forward by its founder, this institution has,, at present, developed into the best homoeopathic medical college in Kerala if not in the whole of India. This premier Institution which is in fact a santuary of homoeopathic education in the South is contributing to a great extent for the advancement of Homoeopathy in this State as well as in the neighbouring States like Tamil Nadu and Karnataka. As the pioneer in the field of homoeopathic education, the Kerala homoeopaths cannot forget the yeoman services rendered by Sreejith Swamy Athuradas, the great Sanyasi. The college at Trivandrum it is run by a Board of Directors of the members of which, two being Government Officers nominated by Government. This college is the second to be started in Kerala to coach students according to the Government approvded syllabus. The third College was started long ago by Dr. S.K. Padiar of Cochin and was imparting a course known as L.R.C.H. H.P. Later, this college also switched over to the syllabus approved by the State Government and fell in line with the other two colleges. This college is at present managed by a committee headed by Sreemed Sudheendra Thirtha Swamiji of Sri Kasi Math Sansasthan as the Patron.

All the colleges wern coaching students as per D.H.M. Syllabus of the State Government upto 1970-71 from which time, to keep up uniformity at the All India level, the D.H.M.S. Syllabus of the Central Government is being followed. The teaching in the colleges is regulated, the examinations are conducted and Diplomas are awarded by the State Government through the Board of Examiners in Homoeopathy, consituted by the State Government, and headed by the Director of Homoeopathy of the State. This Board has got academic control over the colleges. Government had, in 1976, started a Degree College for Homoeopathy in this State. This college is located in Calicut and is under the academic control of the Calicut University, and the administrative control of the Department of Homoeopathy. The course imparted here, is M.B.S. (Horn.), This institution is in fact a great dream of the homoeopaths of Kerala coming to fruition.

There are over 1,000 'A' Class registered homoeopaths and nearly 2000 'B' Class registered practitioners in this State at present. The Scope of this T.C. Medical Practitioners' Act has not so far been extended to Malabar area and hence the number of homoeopathic doctors without institutional training in that area, which forms nearly one-third of the State, has not been assessed correctly. The present Medical council known as the Travancore-Cochin Homoeopathic Medical Council has with it, jurisdiction and control of the 'A' Class (Institutionally trained) homoeopathic docters of the whole of this State and the "B' Class practitioners of the former Travancore and Cochin areas. A Medical Practitioners' Bill covering the whole of Kerala is under contemplation of the State Government. It is expected that the same will be enacted in the near future and thereby, have way, for uniformity of discipline in medical practice. Through their co-operation, Medical facilities in this State have been brought within the reach of people in every nook and corner and people of all walks of life, rich and poor. There is ever increasing support and admiration for this system among the public.

The absence of a large scale manufacturing-unit in the State, in spite of the fact that there are nearly 5,000 homoeopathic practitioners in this State and Kerala, happens to be one of the largest consumers of homoeopathic medicines, was seriously felt both by the State Government and the profession. The Homoeopathic Department took the initiative to establish a manufacturing unit in the co-operative sector. The share capital of this unit would be Rs. 10 lakhs out of which 51% by way of share contribution would be by the homoeopatic practitioners and well wishers of Homoeopathy in the State. This factory will' be commissioned very shortly and will be a great contribution towards the advancement of Homoeopathy in this State as well as in the neighbouring States.

The Kerala Government is encouraging researches in Homoeopathy also to a great extent. This Government have very generously placed five acres of land and a 50 beded hospital building with all necessary amenities, offices, etc. at the disposal of the Central Council for Research in Indian Medicine and Homoeopathy and this Council is running one of its regional research centres at Kurich near Kottayam in the land and building provided by the State Government.

There are 9 hospitals, one each in nine of all (eleven) Districts of this State. Two of these hospitals are having 50 beds each and the others have 25 beds each, altogether forming a bed strength of 275. Three of the hospitals afford facilities for the clinical training of the three private homoeopathic, diploma colleges in the State.

There are 113 dispensaries spread out in the State, mostly in the rural areas. These institutions have only the out-patient sections. The hospitals and dispensaries in the State are rendering yeoman service in the medical relief of both the rural and urban people. Many of the dispensaries or hospitals have each a daily average attendance of 500 and above, and avariety of cases resort to these institutions for their sure medical relief.

The Seventh All India Homoeopathic, Congress was held at Kottayam in Kerala within the premises of the Athurasrannam Homoeopatic College under the joint auspices of the said All India Institute and the a Homoeopathic Organisation of the State in January 1967. It was presided over by Dr. Diwan Harish Chand of Delhi. The opening session of the Congress was inaugurated by Honourable Health Minister of Indian Union and the concluding session by the Governor of Kerala. Many eminent homoeopaths from all parts of India attended the Congress as delegates, guests and visitors.

It may be added in this connection that a couple of periodicals in Malayalam and many homoeopathic institutions organisations under different naraes took their birth in Kerala during these years. Books written in Malayalam are also not few in number. In fhort it may be summed up that Homoeopathy has come to stay in Kerala and is progressing by leaps and bounds, spreading its benevolent shades over the ailing humanity offering them succour and relief. Kerala is heading the list of the: States in India in patronising and propagating Homoeopathy.

Madhya Pradesh

After Independence, Madhya Pradesh is one of the pioneer States in India to give recognition of Homoeopathy by an Act of the Lagislature-M.P. Homoeopathic and Biochemic Practioners' Act, 1951. Under the Act, the Board of Homoeopathic and Biochemic Systems of Medicine, Madlya Pradesh, was constituted in 1952 which was inaugurated by the then Heallh Minister Dr. W.S. Balingay and blessed by the late Pt. Ravi Shanker Shukla, the Ex-Chief Minister. The three distinguished men responsible for statutory recognition of Homoeopathy and legal status and equal rights to its practitioners in the state were Dr. K.L. Daftary, late Dr. S.C. Sen and late Dr. Chakravarty of Seoni. Political Pioneers whose patronage Homoeopathia received were late Pt. Ravi Shankar Shukla, Dr. W.S Barlingay, Late Shri B.R. Mandloi, Dr. K.N. Ketjoo, Dr. Hassam and Rani Padmabati Devi, all Ex-Health Ministers and others.

Even before Independence, the Holker State of Indore had recognized Homoeopathy since 1936 under the Indore Medical Act 1936. The Travancore and Baroda States were also going ahead to recognize Homoeopathy in their, own States.

The characteristic of the M.P. Homoeopathic Practitioners Act, which distinguishes it from the Acts of other States, is visible in the Preamble which lays down the 'Study and Spread of Homoeopathy' as its objectives.

Dr Barlingay, the then Health Minister, prepared ground for smooth sailing of homoeopathic legislation by gettitig approved the recommendations in the Homoeopathic Inqury Report, and 'in the All India Health Ministers' Conference held in Delhi in 1952.

Soon after the constitution of the Board in 1952 the registration and enlistment of practitioners of Homoeopathy in the State was started. At that time there was no instition of Homoeopathy of any kind, neither any dispensary in the State. An 'Education Committee was set up by the Board with Dr. R.K. Sinha, Member-Secretary and a short course of two years' duration leading to a Diploma in Homoeopathy and Bicohemistry was finalised as also all the necessary regulations regarding syllabus, course of study, examination and minimum requirements for an institution in 1954. The first college was opened at Akola and the first batch passed out in October 1955, and this was followed by two more colleges, one each at Amravati and Nagpur. But all the three regions went to Maharashtra State following recoganisation of the, States and the State of M.P. was left without any college. Soon thereafter a college at Raipur was founded by late Dr. G.S. Shyam and late Dr. R.K. Nashine both members of the Board from Raipur and the first batch of students came out of this college in 1958.

The progress of Homoeopathy in M.P. came to a standstill or better to say it got a serious setback, following the formation of the new State and in the demise of late Pt. Ravi Shankar Shukia, Ex-Chief Minister andlate Dr. K.L. Daftary. Homoeopathy was little known in the other constituent parts of the new State viz. Indore, Gwalior, Bhopal and Vindhya Pradesh regions. The Madhya Pradesh Homoeopathic Practitioners Act, 1951 was extended to the whole, of Madhya Pradesh in 1958 with Dr. S. Sen as President of the Board. The work of registration of private practitioners on the basis of experience was started in the State, the last date for which was 31-12-65, after which only the institutionally qualified persons became eligible for registration.

The first election to the Board was held in 1965 and the first elected Board assumed office on August 2, 1965. In the field of education the progress in Homoeopathy was seriously handicapped. In spite of several attempts made during the 5 years' tenure of the Board from 1965 to 1970 no progress could be made. The State Government could not do anything as the Board was an autonomous body. Ultimately, the Board' was dissolved in October, 1970 and an Administrator was appointed by the State Government who happened to be an allopathic doctor from the State Health Services, Later, in September, 1972 the Deputy Secretary, Public Health Department became the Administrator and thereafter in October. 1973 again a person from the State Health Services was appointed Administerator, who continued in the office till September, 1976. In spite of all these administrative changes, no progress Was made.

On the advice of Dr. Jugal Kishore, the then Adviser in Homoeopathy to the Government of India, the State Government took a historic decision and an office of Deputy Director (Homoeopathy) was created in the State Health Services in October, 1972. Consequently, Dr. A.B. Basu, took over the office as Deputy Director. (Homoeopathy) on January 17, 1973. On his advise the Government amended the Homoeopathic Act of 1951 which has now been replaced by a new Act, viz. 'Madhya Pradesh Homoeopathic Parishad Adhiniyam', 1976, (Madhya Pradesh State Council of Homoeopathy Act, 1976) and a new Council of 15 members was constituted in September, 1976 which was also made responsible for implementing the syllabus approved by the Homoeopathy Central Council very soon.

At present there are 17 colleges of two years courses affiliated to State Council of Homoeopathy, Madhya Pradesh—one each at Raipur, Bilaspur, Rewa, Chhatarpur, Mauganj (Rewa), Neemuch, Indore, Gwalior, Bhind, two each at Ujjain and Jabalpur and three colleges at Bhopal and one college of 4 years course at Gwalior affiliated to the U.P. Homoeopathic Board, Lucknow. It was the late Dr. S.G. Sen who had convinced the ministry for starting a Degree College in M.P. and then Health Minister, Rani Radmabati Devi along with Ur. Gaul, Dy. Director,

Health Services ar.d Dr. S.C. Sen visited homoeopathic colleges at Calcutta. The State Government had committed itself to open a State Degree college of Homoeopathy in the third Plan as early as 1960-61 and Rs. 50,000 were being allotted in every plan budget for the same but is has not yet been implemented.

As per the State Register of Homoeopaths, there are approximately 7,000 registered practitioners in the State. Previously there was no homoeopathic pharmacy (Manu-facturer of homoeopathic medicines) in the State but now there is one manufacturer of biochemic and homoeopathic medicines at Bhopal-Mahesh Homoeopathic Laboratory, and several other pharmacies and stockists in several parts of the State.

Regarding the administrative set-up of Health Services in Madhya Pradesh there is only one Director of Health Services common to all systems of medicine, known as Directorate of Medical Health and Family Welfare Services, Madhya Pradesh. The Directorate consists of two Directors one for Medical Services and one for Health and Family Welfare while there are several joint Directorates for different aspects of the department was Medical Education. Drug Control, Indian Systems of Medicine, Public Health, etc. The office of the 'Joint Directorate of Indian Systems of Medicine and Homoeopathy is having a separate office and is practically entrusted with all the powers of the Head of the. Department as far as development and administration of Indian systems and Homoeopathy are concerned. But the financial and major administrative and policy matters are vested with the Director. The State Government has, in principle, decided to establish a separate Directorate of Indian Systems of Medicine and homoeopathy of which the plans and scheme have since been approved to be implemented at any time.

The Central Homoeopathic and Biochemic Association, Gwalior which was established in 1952 and registered in 1953, and is now affiliated as MadhyaPradesh Branch of the Homoeopathic Medical Association of India, has played a praise worthy role in the uplift ment of Homoeopathy in the State. It has propagated Homoeopathy through family practice courses since the year 1954. It also established a library in 1953 which was transferred to the Gwalior Homoeopathic and Biochemic Medical College in 1958, now called Vasundhara Raje Homoeopathic and Biochemic Medical College.

The Association has also started a charitable dispensary and a quarterly magazine, named "Homoeopathic Vikas", in English and Hindi. It has its branches throughout Madhya Pradesh.

At present there are 33 Government Dispensaries and the only 30-beded indoor Government Homoeopathic Hospital at Nawegaon 'in the District of Chindwara. It was established in 1944 by Dr. Sen, who was devoted always to the development and progress of Homoeopathy. This hospital has well qualified staff and other facilities. The Government has agreed to open 19 more dispensaries in the State during 1981-82.

For the development and progress of Homoeopathy in Madhya Pradesh, first conference was held at Gwalior from April 18 to 20,1956, and second time two conferences were called at Jabalpur, one with Dr. R.V. Datey of Gwalior as President, and the Other under the Presidentship of Dr. S, Sen on April 3, 1956. The third conference Was held at Indore on January 8 and 9, 1957 under the presidentship of Dr. K.G. Saxena of Delhi. Fourth conference was held at Nawegaon sanatorium on April 14, 1957, with Dr. Yudh vir Singh of Delhi as President. A biggei conference on All' India basis "was held on, October '2 & 3, 1963 under the president, ship of Dr. K.G. Saxena of Delhi, and Rajmata, Vijaya Raje Scindia addressed the conference as chief guest. It was attended by 1,000 homoeopaths from all over Madhya Pradesh.

Mahatashtra

In Maharashtra, the first homoeopathic charitable dispensary was established at Fort in Bombay in July, 1883 by the efforts of some outstanding persons of high social standing in the city of Bombay including Dr-Dadabhai Naoroji, the first Indian to be a Member of the British Parliament, and Shri J.N.Tata, the founder of Steel Industry in India, At that, time. Homoeopathy was Very popular in U.K. and U.S.A. and our elders thought it fit that this science would be of great service to our country if a centre was established here. Mr. James Ferguson,. the then Governor of Bombay also believed in homoeopathic medicilie and he too was influenced by the Committee members.

Dr. V.M. Kulkarni, founder of Roy & Co. will ever be remembered as a pioneer in Bombay. Shri Kulkarni came to Bombay in 1886 and entered Government service. In his spare time he used to read Sanskrit and write verges but his real sphere of activity was in the field of Homoeopathy. After his office hours, he was working in a dispensary at Gamdevi. Then he moved to Girgaum Back Road, Where he started a small shop named Roy & Co. The dispensary was next shifted to the busy Kalbadevi locality. His study of Homoeopathy, was ever on the increase and so were his patients. Being in service he Was transferred to VengurIa. He was knawn the reas 'Doctor of the Hill'. Then an European officer had visited the place for an inspection and there suddenly his wife took very ill.

Shri Kulkarni treated her and she was well in three days. The officer was 50 pleased that he transferred shri Kulkarni back to Bombay. After coming to Bombay Shri Kulkarni once more devoted himself to Homoeopathy and finally bought the present premises at Princess Street in 1918. The love of this science and the zeal to work more was io great, that he retired from Government service permaturely in 1915 and devoted himselfto the service of Homoeopathy, Shri Kulkarni has written several books and articles.

With the help of like-minded people, Shri Kulkarni started the Bombay Homoeopathic Medical Association in 1918 and became its first President. Later on, the Bombay Homoeopathic Medical College came into existence. The course was for three years to start with which was extended to four years. There was an outdoor dispensary for students to watch the cases. This dispensary and the Association are still existing at Nana Chowk. Dr. A.C. Das, the well-known homoeopath was the Principal and among the lecturers were Dr. S.R. Phatak, Dr. Burjo Behram and others.

The influenza epidemic in the year 1919 in Boinbay. showed the highest effcacy of Homoeopathy and hundreds of patients, took advantage of the medicines from this dispensary.

While the college 'seemed to be progressing well, the progress was suddenly arrested by the passage of the Bombay Medical Practitioners Act of 1938 which recognised only Ayurvedic and Unani medicine and not Homoeopathy. Therefore, the Bombay Homoeopathic Association made a special representation to the Government. The Government accepted some suggestions so that those who quaiified till 1941 were allowed to practise but not for personal gain. The Homoeopathic Medical College had to be closed in April 1941 after a short career of 7 years. With the 'Quit India Movement' the Congress went out of office in 1942 and came back to power in 1947.

In 1947, representations were made to the Chief Minister Shri B.C. Kher and the Health Minister Dr. M.D.D. Gilder. As a result, the Homoeopathic Medical Practitioners Bill was drafted and became an Act in 1950.

After the Bombay Homoeopathic Practitioners' Act came into force in 1951 the Government Of Bombay constituted a Homoeopathic Tribunal for registration and enlistment of existing homoeopathic doctors under Section 19(1) of the said Act. Dr. B.R. Chugha was the Chairman of the Tribunal and Dr.S, R.Wadia and Dr. V. V. Athalye were members. After the demise of Dr. Chugha, Dr. Wadia was nominated as the Chairman of the ribunal, The Tribunal registered 1097 and enlisted 814 homoeopaths. The Tribunal Report was published in 1955).

The Government of Bombay also constituted a Court of Examiners of which the Surgeon General was the Chairman, with Dr. L.D. Dhawale, Dr. V. V. Athalye and Dr. S R. Phatak as members. The Court of Examiners finalised three courses: (1) L.C.E.H., (2).G,C.E.H. and (3) F.CE.H. Out. of tliese 3 courses, the L.C.E.H. course of 4 years duration is still continuing in Bombay and Poona. The Government of Bombay also started a homoeopathic hospital in 1952 with 30 beds and Dr. L.D. Dhawale was put incharge of the same. Somehow, the whole staff resigned in 1955, Dr. S. R. Wadia was nominated first as C, M. 0. and then as Senior Hony. Physician to the Government Homoeopathic Hospital. Dr. C.C. Desai and Dr. P. Sankaran were also appointed as Hony Physicians.

The first Homoeopathic Board of the Government of Bombay was nominated in 1957 and Dr. S. R. Wadia was nominated as its President. In the same year, the Homoeopathic Education Society' under the Chairmanship of Shri Mangaldas Pakvasa started. The Bombay Homoeopathic Medical College in the premises of the Government Homoeopathic Hospital at Sion. The first batch of qualified homoeopathic physicians came out of this college in 1961. This college constructed, its own building at Vile Parle and the Government Homoeopalhic Hospital was shifted to these premises in 1961. The college is now accepting students with Inter Scienee 'B' Group and 12th standard for the L.C.E.H. course.

In May 1960 Vidarbha became part of Maharashtra when the two separate States of Maharashtra and Gujarat came into existence. There was a separate Homoeopathic and Biochemic Board in Vidarbha governed by the provisions of the Madhya Pradesh Homoeopathic and Biochemic Practitioners' Act 1951. A separate Homoeopathic Register was maintained by the Board and it was conducting D.H.B. Course (Diploma in Homoeopathy and Biochemistry) which was of two years' duration. In order, therefore, to Consolidate and amend the Law relating to the regulation of qualifications and registration of homoeopathic and biochemic practitioners in the State of Maharashtra, a new Act called the Bombay Homoeopathic and Biochemic Practitioners Act 1957 was enacted and it came into force on October 27, 1961. The first Maharashtra Homoeopathic and Biochemic Board came into force in 1951 and Dr. S. R. Wadia was nominated President of the Board. Under this Act, only two categories of practitioners were recognised. They comprised of homoeopathic and biochemic practitioners and the enlisted homoeopathic and biochemic practitioners.

After a year or two, a new Court of Examiners, partly elected and partly nominated was constituted. Dr. D. N. Paranjape was nominated Chairman of the Court, In the meantime, the number of biochemic and homoeopathic colleges in Vidarbha kept on increasing and the 'number of practitioners also increased considerably. At that time there were 8 colleges in the whole of Maharashtra. Now there are 24 colleges one in Bombay, one in Poona Bombay one in and the rest mostly in Vidarbha area. The two years courses in Vidarbha have been now upgraded to 4 years and they are running a D.H.M.S. course with some modifications as suggested by the Central Council of Homoeopathy.

After the death of Dr. Paranjape, Dr. Nandurkar was nominated by the Government as the Chairman of the Court of Examiners. The number of colleges in Vidarbha region still increased and as there was a good deal of dissatisfaction among the ranks of the homoeopathic practitioners, the Government of Maharashtra constituted another Review, Committee similar to the Review Committee constituted in 1968. This committee had Dr. Wale as the Chairman with Dr.Prahlad and Dr. Nandurkar as members.

An unusual event happened in 1973 when the Government dissolved the Homoeopathic and Biochemic Board as there were no finances to hold an election. After a lapse of some years the Government again constituted a new Board and a new Court of Examiners. The Board of Homoeopathic and Biochemic Systems of Medicine, Bombay provides for maintenance of the Register of Practitioners of Homoeopathy and regulation of professional eithics Cor them. This is constituted as under:

3. D.H.B. (Diploma in Homoeopathy and Biochemistry) of 2 years duration from 1953 to 1965 and of 3 years duration from 1965 to 1971. The L.C.E.H. course is taught at Bombay in the Bombay Homoeopathic Medical College from 1958 and at Poona in the Homoeopathic Medical College, Poona from 1971.

Prior to introduction of the 4 years D.H.M.S. course, there was a. two years D.H.B. course (Diploma in Homoeopathy and Biochemistry) from 1953 to 1965 and this was continued in the eight colleges transferred in 1961 from M.P. area to the Maharashtra Court of Examiners on the State reorganisation. The duration of the said course was extended to 3 years from 1965 and the teaching of the course ended at the academic year 1971-72. The duration of the said 3 years D.H.B. course are further extended to 4 years and named as D.H.M.S. (Diploma in Homoeopathic Medicine and Surgery) from 1972. Now the D.H.M.S. course is taught in all the 22 colleges in the State with the inclusion of two colleges of the L.C.E.H. course. The total number of colleges is 24.

The annual intake capacity of these 24 colleges comes to about 1200 and annual passing out comes to about 350.

All these colleges are run by private societies registered under Societies' Registration Act. They do not receive any grant-in-aid from Government. There is no homoeopathic college run by State Government departmentally. Only One hospital of 30 beds at Vile Parle is run by the State Government since about 1956 and fa available for clinical training of the studerits of the Bombay Homoeopathic Medical College, Bombay. The Society running the Homoeopathic Medical College at Poona has got a 30 bed private hospital.

The Court of Examiners holds a Convocation function twice a year in March at Bombay and in September at Nagpur to award diplomas of L.C.E.H. and D.H.B. to those who have undergone the course in the recognised colleges of the State.

The Court of Examiners also awards gold medals and silver medals to those students who have passed the course Without failing in any of the previous examinations and who have stood first. The State Government had appointed two Committees:

(i) Desai Committee in 1968.

(ii) Wagle Committee in 1973.

The Report of the Desai Committee was received by Government in or about 1971 and its main recommendation to revise registration fee of Rs. 100/- and to change it once for all was implemented by Government in 1974 by amending the Act. Its other major recommendation to integrate the Board and Court of Examiners into one compact body of 15 members on administrative and economic grounds is under the consideration of Government. As regards the Wagle Committee's Report for provision of financial assistance to private homoeopathic colleges, the same is under the consideration of Government.

The sources of information here were two journals, viz. The Indian Journal of Homoeopathy' and the Journal of Homoeopathy Medicine' which were being published from Bombay. Later on, these journals were merged to form the 'Indian Journal of Homoeopathic Medicine.' which is being regularly published quarterly for the last 15 years Another journal which was being published by Roy & Co. was the 'Homoeopathic Outlook'.

Manipur

In Manipur there have been a few practitioners of Homoeopathy since 1930 but there were no organisations and as such Homoeopathy could not be propagated Far and wide within this small State. However, organisations like the 'National Homoeopathic Medical Association', the 'Manipur Homoeo Association' etc., were formed during 1961-62, The 'Manipur Homoeo Association' tried its level best to impart training to the sympathisers and interested persons. It established a night institute for giving lectures of Homoeopathy and allied subjects. But it could not be continued long because of lack of funds and qualified lecturers.

The 'National Homoeopathic Medical 'Association' established a homoeopathic dispensary in 1962 under the name of the 'Manipur Homoeopathic Charitable Outdoor Hospital. Similarly, the Manipur Homoeo Association also established an institute under the name of the Incurable Hospital'. But these institutes showed no activities after 1970 or so. Another organisation came up in a very remote hill area of the Manipur West District, the Manipur Homoeopathic Medical Association, Tamenglong. It has also started running a dispensary since 1974 and this is being attended by a good number of patients daily.

The Government of Manipur has given grants-in-aid to the various homoeopathic associations to the extent of Rs. 45,575/- between the years 1965 and 1977.

Besides, the National Homoeopathic Medical Association received a sum of Rs. 600/- from the lmphal Municipality in 1967. Most of the previous organisations are now defunct.

Because of these facts when some students of this State passed out of the Calcutta Homoeopathic Medical College in 1973, they tried lo form a strong organisation and there after to go ahead along with the ever increasing wave of this science in this country. Therefore, the All Manipur Homoeopathics Medical Association was formed in 1974. Meanwhile, the circular for the Calcutta convention of all the Homoeopaths of India came and Dr. S. Imo Singh, the Assistant Secretary of the All Manipur Homoeopathic Medical Association was sent to participate in the convention which was held in October 1975, After his coming back, the All Manipur Homoeopathic Medical Association was converted into a local Branch of the Homoeopathic Medical Association of India which later on took. the form of a State Branch.

Along with all these works the Government of Manipur was also pursued to take up some schemes of this science. A Board of Members of Indigenous Systems of Medicine and Homoeopathy was constituted by the Government of Manipur for the purpose of advising the Government on the matters of conducting research and maintenance of study, for conducting training course, for running mobile units and bringing out publications of literature, pamphlets etc. on these systems of medicine.

The Board formed a sub-committee of 6 persons to draft a Bill for the recognition of Homoeopathy. The Board also submitted proposals for the development of Homoeopathy which included a demand for a Homoeopathic State Health Service, opening of 20 bedded hospital, opening of homoeopathic dispensaries and sending 10 student to Homoeopathic Colleges.

Meghalaya

Meghalaya is a small and beautiful hilly State situated in the North-Eastern region of India with abundant natural resources and potential for growth. But despite this, due to various reasons, it has remained one of the most backward and undeveloped State compared with other States of the country in many respects.

Homoeopathy though as a system of treatment has not unacquainted to the people of Meghalaya but till recent years the sweet pills of Homoeopathy were thought only palatable ones useful for children diseases and sometimes of course for inner diseases like cough and cold of adults. The hidden treasure of this beautiful healing science, a science which is based on eternal laws, remained unknown to the poor people of Meghalaya.

Reasons behind were, want of sufficient number of qualified doctors, disunity among Homoeopathic practitioners, inefficiency and charlatanism in dealing with the patients, non-availability of homoeopathic service in rural areas, lack of proper training and education in Homoeopathy, want of patronage of The Government of Meghalaya and last, but not least, want of movement for the cause of promotion and propagation of the homoeopathic system of treatment in the State.

The Shillong unit of the Homoeopathic Medical Association of India lead a deputation on the Hon'ble Health Minister of Meghalaya in February 1981 and submitted a memorandum emphasizing the need of implementing the basic needs for the advancement of the homoeopathic system of treatment in the State. The Hon'ble Minister assured the delegation that all possible steps would be taken from the Government side for improvement of the Homoeopathic Medical Science in the State.

Orissa

The late Padmashree Dr. Abhin Chand Rao was the first one who wrote some books on Homoeopathy in Oriya to popularise this science in Orissa. As a result of this, people having less academic qualifications could practise this science. Dr. A. Gangadhar Patra of Ganjam also wrote some books in Oriya including a big Materia Medica which also helped in the propagation of this Science. Dr. Jagannatha Mahapatra, Dr. Jayabrisha Mishra, Dr. Trilolky Kanta Mitra and Dr. G.N. Patnailt have also written books in Oriya which helped in the satisfactory progress of this science in the State.

The Government of Orissa have its first recognition to the system of homoeopathic treatment in 1956 when it enacted the 'Orissa Homoeopathic Act'. This paved the way for the formation of a State Board of Homoeopathic Medicine in Orissa.

In 1956, therefore, not only the Orissa Homoeopathic Act was introduced, but also the Government formed a nominated Board with Sliri Udayanath Patnaik, I.A.S. as its President. This Board was to function for three years after which members were to be elected by the electoral-roll of the registered homoeopaths. Two of the members were to be nominated by the Speaker of the Orissa Legislative Assembly. The Government kept the right to nominate the president.

The Board set on Dec. 30, 1956 and took a number of important decisions but nothing spectacular happened till 1961 and everything remained in its formative stage. In 1964, however, the first effective Board was constituted under the presidency of Sardar Amar Singh, I.A.S. The first thing that was done was to concentrate on registration work. Hence, a registered homoeopath was appointed as the Registrar. The Registrar, till then, was a member of the ministerial staff of the Government Secretariat. He was helped by the members of the Board in disposing of pending applications. The members sorted out the applications into different categories according to the provisions of law as listed, registered and others by virtue of the duration of practice, qualifications, etc. of the applicant. These yardsticks having been fixed up, the Registrar was able to announce the registration of 1,000 homoeopaths.

It was thus possible to have the first elected Board in 1965. The 1st Meeting of the Board held on March 31, 1965, was attended by Drs. Narayana Rao, Natabar Mohanty, Kamna Panda Sharma, J. Chaudhury, Y. Sahu, Raghunath Parichha, Raghunath Misra, M.L.A., Lokanath Misra, M.L.A, and Shri Chandra Mohan Sinha, M.L.A. The last two were nominated by the Speaker.

Meanwhile, it was preferred to obtain the whole-time services of a qualified homoeopath as Secretary and Regisrtar of the Board. The idea was that a professional man will be able to take more interest and give more concentration on his work. But the expectations were belied and the work of a professional hand at the end of 3-4 years was found to be unsatisfactory. Therefore, Sub Deputy Collector of the Revenue Department was sent on deputation to work as a Secretary and Registrar of the Board.

The name of Sri N. Ramaseshiah, the erstwhile Minister of Health will be remembered long, because it was he and the Chief Minister, Sri R. N. Singh Deo who encouraged the activities of Homoeopathy and established it on sound lines.

The Utkal University has appainted a Board of studies to draw a syllabus to introduce a degree course in Homoeopathy. Similarly the Vice Chancellor, Berhampur University has appointed a 3-man committee to inspect the cooperative Homoeopathic Medical College, Berhampur to find out If the college could be affiliated to the Berhampur University for a degree course. The Committee has submitted its Report opening the suitability of giving affiliation for a degree course. The Government Homoeopathic Medical College and Hospital is managed by the State Government with all its financial resources.

Punjab

Homoeopathic system of medicine came to be practised in the Punjab in 1839, when Dr. Samual Hahnemann was alive in Paris. The fact comes to light from a book entitled `Thirty-five Years in the East' Written by Dr. John Martin Honigberger, a German physician, and published in London in 1952. The book contains the accounts of the treatment by Dr. Honigberger to Maharaja Ranjit Singh, the ruler of Punjab. However, no accounts are available of the development of Homoeopathy in Punjab after the demise of Maharaja Ranjit Singh.

Before Punjab was partitioned in 1947, into West Punjab (Pakistan) and East Punjab (India), Lahore was the seat of the State Government and centre of all social, political and educational activities. Homoeopathy too flourihed in Lahore and from here spread to different parts of the State.

In 1947, when Punjab was divided, Dr. Diwan Jai Chand and the other leading homoeopaths were compelled to emigrate as displaced persons to India from Pakistan. Unfortunately most of these masters in Homoeopathy did not settle in East Punjab but settled in Delhi or elsewhere and thus Punjab was deprived of the stalwarts in Homoeopathy. Dr. Diwan Jai Ghand in his lifetime, not only spread Homoeopathy by the efficient service but also by teaching Homoeopathy to homoeopaths from all over the province, to whom he gave unhestitatingly from the vast store of knowledge he had acquired. He also had his own pharmacy, so that people could buy genuine medicines. He published journal 'Health and Homoeopathy', a publication of merit, which played a vital role in the spread of the science. He practised Hahnemannian Homoeopathy and his personal life was an embodiment of the teachings of our Master.

In 1948, the Homoeopathic Enquiry Committee was formed by the Government of India. This Committee invited Dr. Lakshmi Chand Khanna of Amritsar, Dr. Banarsi Dass of Ambala, Dr. Hateshi of Simla, to appear before the Committee on behalf of Punjab. When the Report of this Committee was published, and finding the recccmmendations not very satisfactory, there was a great agitation and to unite the homoeopaths of Punjab a conference was held at Amritsar in 1950. Dr. S.C. Sarkar of Agra presided. The second conference was called at Amritsar in the year 1954, and third one in 1957 on All-India basis, which was inaugurated by Shri G.L. Nanda, the then Hon'ble Labour and Planning Minister, Government of India. Dr. D.N. Chatterji was the president. The fifth Punjab State Homoeopathic Conference was held at Amritsar in the month of March, 1969. It was inaugurated by Padamshree Dr. K.G. Saxena, the then Adviser to the Ministry of Health Government of India, on behalf of Hon'ble Dr. Chandera Shekhar, State Minister for Health Government of India, and was prescribed over by Dr. Diwan Harish Chand. Dr. D.G. Pavate, Governor of Punjab was the Patron in-chief of this conference, In 1955, the Government of India appointed the Dev Committee to make enquiries into existing facilities for Homoeopathic and Ayurvadic Systems of Medicine.

The Indian Medical Degrees Amendment Bill was introduced in the Punjab Vidban Sabha by the late Sardar Partap Singh Kairon the then Chief Minister of Punjab on the suggestion of IMA to ban the use of prefix 'Doctor' with names of the practitioners, other than allopaths registered under Indian Medical Degrees Act, which clearly meant that homoeopaths were being deprived of the use of prefix '.Doctor' with their names. However, the homoeopaths or Punjab succeeded in preventing the Bill from being passed.

The Punjab Homoeopathic Practitioners' Bill in I965 was initiated by Dr. Gopi Chand Bhargawa (an allopath), the then Health Minister of Punjab. Finding some sections of the Bill deteriomental to the cause of Homoeopathy, representations were made to the Minister to refer the Bill to the Select Committee. The Bill was however referred to the Select Committees of both the Houses. Representatives from all over the State and even outside the State were invited to appear before the Committee. Prominent amongst those who met the Committee were Dr. Yudhvir Singh of Delhi and Dr. L.C. Khanna of Arnritsar. Select Committee accepted some of the amendments and the amended Bill was enacted and enforced in the State in September 1966. Accordingly, a Council of Homoeopathic System of Medicine was nominated during Governor's rule of Punjab The Council could not function as the recognisa of Punjab on 1-1 1-1966 into Haryana, Punjab, Himanchal Pradesh and Union Territory of Chandigarh made the Punjab Homoeopathic Council an Inter-State Body Corporate which had to be divided into separate Councils for Haryana, Punjab, etc. Dr. Diwan Harish Chand, through his efforts in the Union Secretariat, obtained the necessary sanction for this division.

Soon after the establishment of the Council, the Re-organisation Act of Punjab came into operation and Punjab was further divided into Punjab and Haryana and some parts of it went to Himanchal Pradesh, Under this Act, the Council of Homoeopathic System of Medicine, Punjab, became an Inter-State body which required bifurcation. Government of Punjab referred the case to the Home Ministry Government of India, It issued orders to reconstitute re-organize the council of Homoeopathic system of Medicine Punjab, and these orders came into force of April 1, 1969.

There are two very big homoeopathic in-door hospitals at Amritsar. The Shri Kanshi Ram Grover Hdmoeopathic Free Hospital, Tunda Talab, Amritsar is being run by Shri Kanshi Ram Kidar Nath Charitable Trust. It has a well-equipped eye department under an eye surgeon who is M.B., M.S., (Pb.). There are 20 beds in this hospital. The second is Shri Gandhi Sewa Sadan Homoeopathic Free Hospital Putlighar, Amritsar. It is Municipal-aided and gets aid from the Government also. There are many charitable homoeopathic out-door disperisaries in the State. At Ludhiana, there is Shri Atam Valbha Jain Homoeopatilic Free Hospital, as also some charitable dispensaries in this city, and at Jullundur also.

Rajasthan

In Jaipur, the Capital of Rajasthan, Homoeopathy is being practised for about 80 years. Some of the near relatives of the late Shri Kanti Chandra Mukherjee, the then Prime Minister of Jaipur practised Homoeopathy as a hobby. Shri Ashim Kumar Haldar Principal, School of Arts and Crafts also used to practise it as a hobby about 60 years back. The late Dr. Narain Dass Maheshwari of Jaipur was running a Homoeopathic clinic about 65 years back and he was granted Rs. 100/- p.m. by the Jaipur State Government and this clinic was continued by his son late Radha Kishan Maheswari and his Dr. Balchandra. The late Dr. Sugan chand used to practise in Chaurarasta. The late Shri Durgapada Banerji got interested in 1920 and started it as a hobby in the Nahargarh Board area. He is probably the oldest homoeopath in Rajasthan having a long experience of 53 years. His son Dr. P.L. Banerji continued the tradition, late Dr. Hem Chandra Bysack and late Dr. S.P. Banerji in Chandpol Bazar were well known for their professional work from the year 1935 onwards till they died.

In Ajmer, the late Shri Bhathnagar, a retired Railway employee and the late Dt. Batuknath Mehra had good name as homoeopaths, They served the cause of Homoeopathic for about 50 years. Late Dr. Chandrika of Nones Gunj, Dr. Rajpal and after the partition of India, Dr. Pohumal and Dr. K.G. Bhojwani.and Dr. Hom have also contributed greatly to the cause of Homoeopathy in the State.

Almost all the pioneer practitioners collected student-trainees as assistants and trained them Accordingly, whereas there were only about 20 to 30 homoeopaths in Rajasthan in the, thirties, the number increased by leaps and bounds in hundreds spreading in every nook and corner of Rajasthan. Dr. Chandra Prakash Jhunjhunuwala trained, up a large number of students who eventually started their own independent practice and formed the Rajasthan Homoeopathic Association (Regd.) working with a full-fledged office and library opening daily from 10 A.M. to 10 P.M. and very regularly publishing a quarterly journal, the "Torch of Homoeopathy'. This Association was later on affiliated with All India Institute of Homoeopathy and finally with the Homoeopathic Medical Association of India with its various branches in the prominent cities of Rajasthan.

Dr. R.P. Mathur also trained quite a good number of students. Dr. S.K. Gour started a college and trained quite a large number of students. Dr. P. L. Banerjee, Dr. Pal, Dr. Rajvanshi, Dr. R.P. Mathur, etc. also started a new association, and a college. Dr. S.P. Kansal, an enthusiastic homoeopath of Jaipur, had been instrumental in forming a local association to bring together the local homoeopaths under the banner of the 'Jaipur Homoeopaths Association'. The Rajasthan Homoeopathy Act was passed as late as the August 14, 1969 and there after the first nominated Board was constititued by the Government on the May 9, 1970. Then the work of registration of homoeopaths was started in November 1971. The registration by virtue of the large number of homoeopaths, who were eligible for registration by virtue of their experience of three or more years practice, was first of all taken up and completed. Thereafter, the registration on the basis of medical qualification was taken up and above 2500 practitioners registered. There are a few qualified doctors who have undergone, regular 4 years training courses with diplomas and two or three graduates in Homoeopathy. The majority of members of the present Board are from amongst the nonqualified but registered practitioners. This

As regards homoeopathic education in Rajasthan, it will be worth-while mentioning that in the absence of Government recognition in the past there were two private institutions viz. 'Homoeo Mandiram' and 'Khari Homoeo Institute' at Jaipur and Bikaaer. These were owned by private individuals interested in Homoeopathy like Dr. S.K. Gour in Jaipur and Dr. P.C.C. Khatri in Bikaner. They used to issue diploma after a year or two of studies (not recognised). These colleges had to be closed down after the enactment of the Homoeopathy Act in Rajasthan in 1969. This was anticipated and thus a Body of homoeopaths with Dr. Banerji as Chairman brought into existence the Rajasthan Homoeopathic Medical College and Hospital in the year 1965 at Jaipur, with a regular 4 years course leading to the D.H.M.S. diploma with Dr. Girendra Pal Singh as the Principal. There being no Board of Council of Homoeopathy, this college could not be recognised in Rajasthan Board of Homoeopathic Medicine, there being nor approved syllabus of the Board, this college had to seek affiliation with the Uttar Pradesh Board of Homoeopathic Medicine. Now the college is affiliated with the Rajasthan Board. At present it is getting finacial help both from the central government as also the Rajasthan State Government since 1972. It has a 25 bedded hospital. The college is now shifted to its new building built on a big plot of land donted by Dr. M.P. Khureta Homoeopathic Charitable Trust.

There is yet another homoeopathic college at Bharatpur known as Homoeopathic College, Bharatpur. This college came into existence a few years back and is also affiliated with the Board of Homoeopathic Medicine. It is not getting any financial aid from any Government. It has no indoor hospital. Recently another Homoeopathic college has been started at Alwer which is also affiliated to Rajasthan Board.

Proviosuly, there were 4 homoeopathic dispensaries at Bikaner, one at Jaipur and one at Ajmer for some time past. Recently the state Government has opened 19 more Homoeopathic Dispensaries in the State and many more are contemplated to be opened soon there are a few private owned hospital and dispensaries of homoeopathic in Rajasthan run for some time past by philanchropsts as charitable one.

The Director of state for Ayurveda is the director for Homoeopathy too and there is no Hony. Adviser to the State Government for Homoeopathy as yet which is highly necessary. The expenses for Homoeopathy are met from the Budget of Ayurveda in Rajasthan. There is no separate head.

Tamil Nadu

Homoeopathy was brought to Tamil Nadu (old Madras Presidency) by grateful patients who had been cured by this system in Bengal and other provinces. They were all lay men but intellectuals, who studied and mastered the system and took personal interest in treating patients, deriving considerable satisfaction and pride in the cures they effected and in the system.

Sri C.Keshava Rao Naidu got a great spurt and enlarged into the bigger `Madras Presidency Homoeopathic Association" with the help of his friends and Dr. T. Janaki Ram became its first president. The entire homoeopathic activity revolved around him and his other active friends. Many eminent lawyers, judges and others joined the Association.

Among the members of the medical profession Dr. M.Raja Bahadur, L.R.C.P. & S. (London), L.F.P. &S. (Glasgow) was the first to introduce and sought a place for Homoeopathy in South in 1916, especially in Madras. He was a convert from allopathy, and became a strict follower of Hahnemann. In 1920, another allopath, Dr. T. Janakiram M.B. Ch.B (Edsin) took to Homoeopathy. In 1910,another Homoeopath, Dr. V. Venkatasubba Rao, H.L.M. & S. was introduced by Dr. T. Janakiram to Dr. Raja Bahadur. These three doctors did their best to spread Homoeopathy in Tamil Nadu.

During the same period, some members of the legal, profession who were not only sympathisers of Homoeopathy but also studied it. viz. Mr. Justice Somayya, Mr. K. Krishna Swamy Iyangar and Mr. Patanjali Sastri (Retd. Chief Justice, Supreme Court of India) took keen interest in spreading Homoeopathy. After a few years, justice B. Somayya developed an eye trouble which could not be cured by many allopaths, and he was advised to go to Bengal for taking homoeopathic treatment. There he was treated by Dr. N.M. Choudhury, M.D. (U.S.A.) Sri Somayaya was wonderfully relieved and he was much impressed by homoeopathic treatment. So with the help of Sri Krishnswamy Iyangar, Sri Patnjali Sastri and others arranged the first Homoeopathic conference at Madras at the end of 1937, presided by Dr. N.M.Choudhury, this was a great success. Now onwards, Dr. Choudhury used to visit Madras frequently to treat patients, assisted by Dr. V. Venkatasubbha Rao.

In coimbatore also this system attracted many adherents. They formed the coimbatore Distt. Homoeopathic Association' in the early thirties with Sri T. R. Narayana Iyer as President. Even now it is the most active association in Tamil Nadu. Two other famous homoeopaths were Sri P.V. Aghoram Iyer and Dr. S.R.U. Savoor. They were scholars in Homoeopathy.

In 1939, another homoeopath. Dr. S.Srinivasan, D.H.S., D.F.H. (Paris), founded as institute by the name `Hahnemann Homoeo Institute' and began to prepare homoeopathic tinctures, etc. and later started postal tutions in homoeopathy and spreade the system. In the same year, Dr. V.R. Murthy founded the Indian Institute of Homoeopathy and also started a postal course in homoeopathy coached many and Both Dr. Srinivasan and Dr. V.R. Murthy started manufacture of homoeopathic medicines by opening laborataries, and both the institutions have completed more than 30 years now and have established many branches and opened many pharmacies.

In early forties when Dr. Choudhury visited Madras, an idea cropped up to start a homoeopathic college at Madras. The `Madras Homoeopathic College' was started on Aug. 15, 1945 by Justice Somayya and his friends mentioned earlier. Dr. Choudhury drew out the syllabus for a 4-year course and it was financed by donations from Dr. Choudhury, Dr. Ramana Rao and others. Dr. Raman Rao, IM.S.(Retd.) was appointed as its first Principal. He was its Principal for two years. 'The Madras Homoeopathic Journal' was also started and he was its first Editor. The State Government showed interest in Homoeopathy and appointed a Committee to report on Homoeopathy and the methods by which it could be recognised in. South India. The Committee consisted of Gol. K. V. Ramana Rao, Dr. T. Janakiram, M.B., Ch.S. (Edin.), Dr.M.R. Guruswamy Mudaliar and others. This Committee favourably reported to the Government. Dr. T, Janakiram was appointed as Hony. Director of Homoeopathy to take steps to develop Homoeopathy in the State, The Government by an order permitted the then students of the Madras Homoeopathic Medical College to attend dissection classes in the College of Indian Medicine at Madras. However, due to political vicissitudes the college suffered a set back and had to merge with the Andhra Homoeopathic Medical College in Gudivada.

The 'Madras Presidency Homoeopathic Association' requested the Government to create a Faculty of Homoeopathy on the lines of the General Council and State Faculty of Homoeopathic Medicine. The Central Government appointed a Homoeopathic Enquiry Committee in 1948. Dr. Ramana Rao was appointed as one of the members and the committee inspected the Madras Homoeopathic Medical College.

From 1956, the Madras Presidency Homoeopathic Association started a Homoeopathic Charitable Dispensary and also conducted a one-year free homoeopathic class. The Madras Homoeopathic Journal was also revived. Sri N. Venkatarama lyer took over as General, Secretary of the Madras Presidency Homoeopathic Association in 1955 and did a lot to improve this organisation. In 1957 this association started a 2-year Sunday classed course in Homoeopathy and allied medical subjects and gave certificates to the successful trainees, after an examination.

In 1959, the Federation of Homoeopathic Practitioners was started and Dr. V. R. Murthy was elected as its first President in 1961 and Dr. S. Srinivasan was elected as its President. Associations at District and Taluk levels were started throughout Tamil Nadu and a number of conferences were held, each contributing its due share for getting recognition for Homoeopathy. In 1964, a Homoeopathic Club was started by Dr. S. Srinivasan. and regular monthly clinical meetings were conducted for some time.

An organisation 'Society of Homoeopathic Physicians' was started in 1965. It earned a good name bv conducting fortnightly clinical meatings like symposia, lectures, medical filmshows, slides, hospital case studies, journals, club meetings, Homoeopathic Quiz, and refresher courses of 3½ to 4½ months' duration Homoeopaths.

ln August 1965, the Government of Tamil Nadu presented a Bill to the Legislative Assembly called 'Madras Medical Practitioner Bill', consolidating all the systems of medicine including Homoeopathy. Since the Bill was hitting hard on homoeopaths, it was vehomntly opposed by all associations. A Joint Select Committee of both the Legislative Assembly and legislative Council was constituted and the grievances of homoeopaths were heard by it.

In 1967, Sri K.Gurumurthy, President, Simpson and Group Companies, Staff and Workers, union (associating, 20 Companies) took the advice of Dr. A. N. Ramanathan, B.A., M.B.B.S., D.C.L.S., A.R.I.C, M.Sc. (Manchester), an allopath-Cum-Homoeopath and opened a fully equipped homoeopathic dispensary with. an attached laboratory. It served to the needs of 14,000 staff and workers of Simpson & Group Companies, situated at "Madras, and also to their families.

Dr. S. Raman, B.A., H.M.B., a homoeopath of Madras had been a member of the Homoeopathic Pharmacopoeia Committee, Government of India. D,r. A.U. Sriram, M.B.B.S., M.F. Hom. (London) of Thiruchirapalli (in Tamil Nadu) was also a member of one of the Homoeopathic Committees constituted by the Government of India. 'Dr. A.U Sriram, Dr. A.U. Ramakrishna, M.B.B.S., M.F. Horn. (London), and Dr. A.U. Mudalar, M.B.B.S,, M.F. Hom. (London) have been then prominent and successful practitioners in Tamil Nadu. Mention must be made of the name of a Dr. A.Umapathy Mudaliar, M.B.B.S., M.F. Hom. (London) of Madras, who was the Superintendent of Government Royapettah Hospital, Madras. He has been a staunch homoeopath and even when he was in Allopathic hospital service, and especially when he was District Medical Officer of Madurai, is he did pioneering work at his hospital by treating cholera cases homoeopathically with success.

There are about 80 'A' Class practitioners who have undergone full courses in recognised colleges and about 15000 doctorts with 10 years of experience have been registered in 'B' Class. Those with only 4 years of practice had to pass a test conducted by the Council to register in 'C' Class of these there were 10,722 practitioners when the registration was started. The Government of Tamil Nadu have also started a Homoeopathic Medical College in the city in Kilpauk to be the forerunner of other institutions and hospitals.

It is now the duty of all classes of Homoeopaths of Tamil Nadu to unite, study this great science more and improve their status and future.

Uttar Pradesh

Homoeopathy entered into the vast area of uttar pradesh in 1867 when Shri Lokenath Maitra, a disciple of babu Dr. Rajendra Lal Dutta established a homoeopathic hospital in Banaras. This city is now known as Varanasi. On the persuasion of Sir Syed Ahmed Khan. Mr. Ivanside, Civil & Sessions Judge of Banaras became the first patron of this institution. In August, 1869 a charitable homoeopathic dispensary was opened in Allahabad out of private subscriptions and Babu Priyanand Bose, a lay practising homoeopath was put in charge of this institution. In 1878. Babu Priyanand Bose came to Lucknow and started another homoeopathic charitable dispensary. `In 1880, Dr. Harish Chandra Mukherjee a disciple of Shri Lokenath Maitra founded the `Hahnemannian Dispensary' in Gorakhpur.

In 1890 Dr. Beni Madho Banerjee M.D. started practising Homoeopathy in Allahabad and became a successful practitioner. He converted Dr. R.N. Mullick, an allopathic physician in 1901 who had the credit of popularising Homoeopathy in the state. In 1902 Dr. Madho Lal Mullick, L.R.C.P. & S. (Glasgow) returned from abroad after qualiflying and being impressed by Beni Babu, he also converted to Homoepathy. Thus, Homoeopathy at first entered into two of the holiest city of the state, namely Varanasi and Allahabad and thereafter found its passage to the capital city of the lucknow and gradually penetenated into Gorakhpur. There were other also who started practice in Aligarh, Mathura, Ddhradun and Kanpur.

In the tweentieth century, Dr. Pyare Lal Srivastava, became a most successful practitioner in Lucknow. He started a charitable homoeopathic dispensary and later on thought at the intenence of some friends viz Dr. B.S. Tandon, `Dr. G.C. Dass, M.D.,Dr. G.N. Ohdedar, M.D., Dr. S.N. Ghosh and others formed a society and established the national Homoeopathic Medical College and Hospital at Lucknow, the first homoeopathic institution in this state of impart a 2 year teaching course. This institution is functioning since then. Gradually the course was raised from 2 to 3 years and in 1950, it was raised to 4 years. This was affiliated to Agra University in 1961 and thereby became the first such institution to be affiliated to any university in India. After its affiliation to the university the teaching course was raised to a 5 years degree course. The credit for this goes to the zealous efforts of some of the teachers and students of that college. But due to the apathy of the Government the National `Homoeopathic Medical College could not fulfill the required conditions of the University and therefore by an order of the State Government, the four years Diploma Course was restricted in the college in 1967. Again due to the mounting pressure, especially from the student community the Government was compelled to open a faculty of Homoeopathy in Kanpur University and the national Homoeopathic Medical College was affiliated to that university.

In the year 1936 efforts were made by the leading homoeopaths, Dr. S.N. Chanddia, Dr. B.S. Tandon, Dr. U.A. Pasha, Dr. G.H. Sarcar, Dr. S.C. Sarkar, Dr. Kashi Ram, Dr. A.P. Arora, Dr. R.P. Bhargawa, Shri Shiv Ratna Lal and Dr. L.B. Nigam and many others for moving a Bill to recognize. Homoeopathiy in state. In spite of all the possible opposition by later Pt. G.B. Pant, The Bill was passed unanimously. Non Homoeopaths like late shri Purshotam Dass, Tandon, late Shri Lal Bahadur Shastri, Shri Mangla Prasad and Shri Mohan Lal Gautam will always be remembered in this connection. In the year 1951 a non-official Bill was pioloted by an independet member Shri Sultan Alam Khan in the Assembly and was passed by unanimously by both the House of the state. The Bill got the assent of the Governor in 1952.

Since the formation of the Homoeopathic Medicine Board U.P. a sort of a systematic development of Homoeopathy started with Shri Sultan Alam Khan M.L.A. as the first Chairman and Dr. S.N. Chaddha as the first Vice-Chairman of the Board. A syllabus of 4 years diploma course was chalked out and the 2 colleges namely, The National Homoeopathic Medical College and the Allahabad homoeopathic medical college (established in 1953) were affiliated to the Board in 1954. About 15,000 homoeopathic practitioners all over the state were registered on the basis of 5 years minimum experience of whole time homoeopathic practice. Beside this a large number of practitioners were also enlisted and this concession was applied to those persons who were employed and thereby were part time homoeopathic practitioners; Later on an examination was planned and those non institutionally qualified practitioness who passed this examination were awarded certificate of R.M.P. with the dearth of institutionally qualified hands some of these R.M.P.s and non-institutionally qualified registered medical practitioners served in homoeopathic college. Gradually many influential persons, got interested into Homoeopathy and with the help of philanthopic persons and public donations, a gool number of homoeopahic institutions were started and got affiliated to the Board one by one.

The homoeopaths of Uttar Pradesh had been constantly demanding for a separate directorate and the students were anxious that all their colleges be affiliated to the university and they be awarded a degree instead of a diploma. This matter was considered at the university level at Agra and Kanpur and by the government. The Uttar Pradesh government appointed. Dr. A.C. Saxena as the Deputy Director in Homoeopathy in the year 1972. The Deputy Director also held two other posts, as the principal of the National Homoeopathic medical college as well as the Dean of the Faculty of Kanpur University.

There are about 2000 homoeopathic dispensaries run by the U.P. Govt. which include, a large number of labour dispensaries which are situtated mostly in cities. Besides, there are a large number of private charitable. homoeopathic dispensaries and a few hospitals as well. The Devatraya. Homoeopathic Hosipital, Aligarh and the Moti Lal Nehru Homoeopathic Hospital (outdoor) at Lucknow are two such hospitals. In this connetion. it is worthy to remember that the Labour Department of Uttar Pradesh Government had been the pioneer in opening homoeopathic dispensaries in the State and this. was done before the passing of the Homoeopathic Act in 1951. There are about 10,000 institutionally qualified and 60,000 institutionally non-qualified registered homoeopaths in the State.

Not with standing this bright picture, it must be recorded that some of the homoeopathic colleges in U.P. are running without hospitals or with inadequate number of beds and the practical training is not up to the mark. The Board of Homoeopathic Medicine, U.P. has gone-ahead in comparison to other States by giving permission and affiliation to as many as seventeen institutions in this State and three outside the State, one each in the Rajasthan (Jaipur), Madhya Pradesh (Gwalior) and in Punjab (Chandigarh). Dr. D. Banerjee (Kanpur) headed the Board as the Chairman twice. He was followed by Dr. Hemant Kumar Banerjee (Gorakhpur), Dr. S. Shyam Kishore, M.L.A, (Sitapur) and Dr. Sankata Prasad, M.P. ln 1975-76 the Central Goverment and the three C.G.H.S. dispensaries in.U.P. for the hie benefit of Central Government employees; the located in Allahabad, Kanpur and Meerut. The homoeopaths of U.P, have occasionally received representation in the committees on Homoeopathy formed by the Central Government from time to time.

In relation to the development of Homoeopathy in Uttar Pradesh the support given by tals two Health Ministers viz, Shri. Chandra Bhan Gupta and Shri Salig Ram Jaiswal will always be remembered. Shri Gupta besides establishing the Board of Homoeopathic Medicine and many homoeopathic dispensaries' also arranged to send one physician every year to U.K. for farther training in Homoeopathy under this scheme Dr. R.K. Kapoor, Dr. J.C. Sharma, Dr. D.P. Rastogi and Dr. A.C. Saxena were sent abroad but his scheme was discontinued later. Shri Jaiswal laid the foundation of the faculty of Homoeopathic medicine in Kanpur University and took steps to open homoeopathic departments in district hospitals. In spite of the great difficulties that he had to face at all levels of the Government he succeeded in opening such dispensaries at Agra, Allahabad, Kanpur, Bareilly, Etah, Moradabad, Ghazipur, Varanasi, Gorakhpur, Lakhimpur Kheri, Meerut and Lalitpur. Shri Jaiswal during a serious illness in the hospital took homoeopathic treatment.

The State Government has also decided that all the existing 15 private homoeopathic A, colleges, would be taken over by the State during the sixth plan period. A seven member committee has been constituted to discuss all the aspects of homoeopathic education including provincialisation of the private colleges. A decision has also been taken to constitute an Experts Committee for setting up a homoeopathic research institute in the State.

The State Government has decided to set up a separate Homoeopathic Directorate on the pattern of the Allopathic and A yurvedic Directorates. The Homoeopathic Board has already been dissolved and besides appointment of a Controller, a Seven-member Advisory Council including a homoeopathic expert, has also been constituted.

A three-member committee has also been constituted to inquire into the past activities of the U.P. Homoeopathic Board.

The Government has also decided not to grant recognition to any private homoeopathic college and to restrict admission to the existing 15 colleges so as to bring the student-bed ratio to 2 : 1.

West Bengal

The seed of Homoeopathy is known to have been sown in Bengal by about 1810, the year of publication of 1st edition of the 'Organon', by a German Geologist-cum-Physician and, then in the forties of the last century by the German Physician Dr. John Martin Honigberger, who successfully treated Maharaja Ranjit Singh of Punjab in 1839 and later practised in Calcutta upto 1860. Since then, Homoeopathy rooted itself and spreaded luxuriantly all over Bengal, mostly through the agency of erudite laymen, high officials, military men, missionaries and elites of society. Out of these, the personality who stands out in the lime light of history, was Babu Rajendra Lal Dutt, a millionaire of Calcutta, who literally dedicated his whole life and property in the service of Homoeopathy. He also managed to bring Dr. Mahendra Lal Sircar, an outstanding personality of the orthodox school into the fold of Homoeopathy, who openly avowed his allegiance to Homoeopathy in a meeting of the Culcutta Branch of the British Medical Association on February 16, 1867. It was through the dynamic influence and activities of Dr. Mahendra Lal Sircar that Homoeopathy could establish itself not only in all corners of Bengal, but also in whole of India.

The movement for the establishment of homoeopathic teaching institutions was started in the eighties of last centry by Dr. Pratap Chandra Majumdar, Dr. Mohini Mohan Bose, Dr. Brajendra Nath Banerjee and others, and later was joined by Dr. Dwarka Nath Roy, Dr. Bepin Behari Chaterjee, Dr. Hara Nath Roy, Dr. Sushil Kumar Nag. etc. and about 25 homoeopathic teaching institutions in Calcutta itself which struggled for their existence throughout the first 3 or 4 decades of this century, but only a few are still surviving. Most of these teaching institution taught the homoeopathic subjects with a creditable degree of efficiency, as proved by the fact that the diploma-holders from these institutions are practising with remarkable success not only all over India but also in nearby countries.

In 1937, the resolution of Miyan Ghiasuding giving congizence to the homoeopathic system of medicine was passed in the central legislative assembly by 44 to 36 votes. The then homoeopathic leaders of Bengal Dr. A.N. Mukherjee, Dr. Barid Baran Mukherjee and Dr. Jitendra Nath Majumdar worked a lot for it. During the same period, the central board of homoeopathic education later renamed as the central homoeopathic Association was formed, with Dr. N.M. Chowdhury as the president, Dr. S.N. Sen Gupta and Dr. S.K. Dass as Vice Presidents, and Dr. B.K. Sarkar as the General Secretary.

By strenuous efforts of Dr. Sarat Chandra Ghosh and others, Shri R. Banarjee, M.L.A. was induced to move the Homoeopathic Faculty Bill, 1937. Shri Bhupendra Narayan Sinha, M.L.C., Raja Bahadur of Nasipur, ex. Minister, Bengal Government, Khan Baba Bahadur M.A., Momin, C.I.E. Ex. Commissioner, Chittagong, Sir Hari Shankar Paul, K.T., M.L.C. etc. supported the move. This movement received active support and guidance from Syed Nausher Ali, the then Minister of Health, Government of Bengal and Major General Goyal, Surgeon-General of the Government of Bengal.

After this, Mr. Mausher Ali's move for the formation of a Homoeopathic State Faculty, proceeded with remarkable speed. An advisory committee was formed and a constitution for the faculty was drafted by the committee, and the required funds were raised and the deposited with the Government.

Ultimately on June 24, 1941, the Government of Bengal passed the Order No. 1598 Medical expressing its approval of the formation of the General Council and state Faculty of Homoeopathic Medicine, Bengal, with the constitutional rules formulated by the Advisory Committee constituted by Mr. Nausher Ali in 1938, with a clearly expressed stipulation that the Government shall not undertake any financial responsibility in the matter. Upto that date a sum of Rs. 6,850 had been deposited with the Government for the required initial expenses and it was decided that the recurring expenses would be met by further donations and the income from registration fees, examination fees and other fees.

A Homoeopathic Bill was placed in the West Bengal Legislative Assembly, first in 1953 by Shri Jogesh Chandra Gupta, M.L.A , then in 1955 by Dr. Narayan Chandra Roy, M.L.A. (a graduate of the orthodox medicine) and lastly on March 25, 1959 by Dr. Jnanendra Nath Majumdar, M.L.A. Each time, Dr. Bidhan Chandra Roy, the then Chief Minister made a promise that the Government would soon submit a Homoeopathic Bill and thus persuaded the respective members to withdraw their Bills.

Ultimately, pressure from various sides forced Dr. B.C. Roy to constitute a Homoeopathic Committee with the following members: Dr. B. C. Roy as Chairman, Dr. A.B. Roy (Health Minister), Dr. J. N. Majumdar (President, General Council and State Faculty of Homoeopathic Medicine), Dr. N.C. Chatterjee (Jt. Director, Health Department), Dr. S.L. Sarkar, Dr. R. Ghosal, Dr. N.K. Banerjee, Dr. R. C. Roy Choudhury, Shri A. C. Roy and the Registrar, General Council and State Faculty of Homoeopathic Medicine, After the demise of Dr. B.C. Roy in 1962, the movement for the legalisation of Homoeopathy got a fresh impetus. As a result, the West Bengal Homoeopathic System of Medicine Act, 1963 was actually passed, assented by the Governor and published in the Calcutta Gazette, Extraordinary of November 6,1963,

So far 4,412, students have passed out with the qualification Dr. M.S. (upto 1975) and 14,762 practitioners have received registration. At present there are 9 homoeopathic medical colleges in the State recognised by the Council, of which 4 have been granted affiliation by the Calcutta University for running degree course from the session 1976-77.

The Council has also taken steps to introduce a Homoeopathic Pharmacy Training course and a Refresher Training Course for the practitioners Registered in Part 'B' of the State Register. The report of the Committee of Experts in respect of setting up a Government Homoeopathic Medical College and Hospital in the State is under active consideration of the State Government.

The State Government has provided accommodation at 118, Amherst Street, Calcutta for the Central Homoeopathic Research Institute and has donated 100 acres of land at Salt Lake Area for the development of this institute. The Central Government has earmarked Rs. 74 lakhs for its development. The Government has also established a National Institute of Homoeopathy in West Bengal at Calcutta.

With a view to providing standard Homoeopathic drugs at a cheaper rate and to exercise adequate control on the quality of homoeopathic drugs manufactured and marketed by different manufacturers of the State, an integrated Homoeopathic and Ayurvedic Drug Production Centre, (Quality Control Unit and Herbarium have been sanctioned in Kalyani. The construction works are in progress. The proposal for establishment of another Harberium in Alipurduar is receiving active consideration of the Government.

The State Government has established an independent Directorate for Homoeopathy under a fulltime director in August, 1978 For making available the homoeopathic services in the rural areas, the State Government has so far established 185 Homoeopathic Dispensaries including Homoeopathic Dispensaries attached to different subsidiary Health Centres and the Primary Health Centres, etc. with one full time Medical Officer and 0ne Compounder. Sanction for additional 120 State Homoeopathic Dispensaries has also been accorded during the past years. For making available the homoeopathic services in the rural areas, the State Government has also established 190 Gram Panchayat Homoeopabhic Dispensaries with one Part-time Medical Officer and Compounder. Besides; a proposal for establishment of additional 330 Gram Panchayat Homoeopathic Dispensaries are under consideration of Government. Though the palpable progress in the field of Homoeopathy is being felt after Independence, it would take a considerable time and financial resources to achieve the goal. Its development has now reached to such a stage that it can be claimed with firm conviction that the day is not too far for Homoeopathy to secure its rightful position in medical profession due to its increasing popularity and public demand coupled with the untiring organised efforts of the homoeopathic profession and keen interest of the Government.

Outstanding homoeopathic writers of Bengal include Dr. B. K. Sarkar, Dr. B. Bose. Dr. Mohim Bhattacharya, Dr. N. K. Banerjee, Dr. T. N. Banerjee, Dr. P. T. P. Banerjee, Dr. K. N. Basu, Dr. N. M. Choudhury, Dr. A.P. Chatterjee, Dr. G.N, Mukherjee and alth Dr. J.N, Kanjilal. etc.

The established homoeopathic publishers of Bengal include

(1) Hahnemann Publishing Co. (P) Ltd.,

(2) M. Bhattacharya & Co. (P), Ltd.

(3) Economic Homoeo Pharmacy,

(4) National Homoeo Laboratory,

(5) Sett Dey & Co.

(6) Haren Brothers, and

(7) Sunder as Homoeo Sadan.

In West Bengal there are 5 big homoeopathic manufacturing units (pharmacies) and four or five small ones. Among the pharmacies stocking (but not manufacturing) homoeopathic medicines, there are two very (big and two very old ones, five or six medium ones and numerous small ones. There are four homoeopathic journals in English and 8 in Bengali.

Regular annual State conferences are organised by the Paschim Bengal Rajya Homoeopathic Sangha since 1961. Annual conference of 1976 was organised by West Bengal State Branch of the Homoeopathic Medical Association of India. District conferences are also held in most of the districts. Hahnemann's birth celebrations are also held every year by various branches of State level as well as local lavels.