HOMOEOPATHY IN THE WORLD

Argentina

ln Argentina, the teaching and spread of Homoeopathy began in the year 1931 with the foundation of the, 'Association Medica Homoeopathica Argentina' i.e., "The Homoeopathic Medical Association of Argentina."

In the year 1971 Dr. Thomas P. Paschero, founder physician of the Association founded "Escuela Medica Homoeopathica Argentina" i.e., "Argentina Homoeopathic Medical School." Both these organisations conduct courses for medical graduates which last for 3 years. At first, the students are taught two subjects if., the (i) Doctrine and (ii) Medicine. In the third year, the physicians are divided in groups of either students, who are assisted by two instructors and they are given practical training in the Physicians Consulting Rooms where they treat patients once a week, four hours at a time.

From the first year on, the students become familiar with the use of the 'Repertory' which enables them to drive the knowledge of the comparative medicine. They also have courses for homoeopathic pharmacy, The school also arranges for an intensive course of 10 days once a year which is attended by the physicians of the interior of the country, and specially from abroad. Physicians from Brazil, Mexico, Venezuela, Uruguay and Columbia also attend the said course. As Homoeopathy is not taught in the different schools of medicine of the country, the degree, "Homoeopathic Physician", is not recognised by the Government. Paradoxically the homoeopathic medicines are permitted by the respective authorities and in Buenos Aires alone more than 400 pharmacies exhibit big sign.boards reading, "Homoeopathy". Approximately 30 per cent of them have their own laboratories. About 14 laboratories in Buenos Aires prepare homoeopathic medicines.

In this country, Homoeopathy has a good standing and most of the physicians are Hahnemannian homoeopaths. At present there are more than 500 physicians practising unified Homoeopathy.As for the source of information the country has two periodicals namely; "Annales Homoeopatics Argentinos', and the, 'Homoeopatia', Rio Bomba, 118-Buenos Aires (Argentina).In Argentina, the homoeopathic remedies are duly accepted by the Ministry of Public Health and the pharmacies and the laboratories prepare and. sell with any freedom, their medicines under the same controls as those on general remedies.

Australia

History does not clearly reveal the exact year in which Homoeopathy was introduced in Australia but it was in or around 1850 that Dr. John Hickson was practising Homoeopathy in that country. Meanwhile, a French physician Dr. Thienette de Berigny arrived in the country and started writing articles on homoeopathic practice and started publishing the same in the leading Malbourne News-paper, 'The Age.'. Encouraged by these two pioneers of Homoeopathy, a few more homoeopathic practitioners started practising Homoeopathy in the leading street of Melbourne, the Collins Street. In 1864 the first homoeopathic pharmacy was established in the country, still existing and carrying on business under the name of "Martin and Pleasance Wholesale".

In the year 1971 Dr. Thomas P. Paschero, founder physician of the Association founded "Escuela Medica Homoeopathica Argentina" i.e., "Argentina Homoeopathic Medical School." Both these organisations conduct courses for medical graduates which last for 3 years. At first, the students are taught two subjects if., the (i) Doctrine and (ii) Medicine. In the third year, the physicians are divided in groups of either students, who are assisted by two instructors and they are given practical training in the Physicians Consulting Rooms where they treat patients once a week, four hours at a time.

From the first year on, the students become familiar with the use of the 'Repertory' which enables them to drive the knowledge of the comparative medicine. They also have courses for homoeopathic pharmacy, The school also arranges for an intensive course of 10 days once a year which is attended by the physicians of the interior of the country, and specially from abroad. Physicians from Brazil, Mexico, Venezuela, Uruguay and Columbia also attend the said course. As Homoeopathy is not taught in the different schools of medicine of the country, the degree, "Homoeopathic Physician", is not recognised by the Government. Paradoxically the homoeopathic medicines are permitted by the respective authorities and in Buenos Aires alone more than 400 pharmacies exhibit big sign.boards reading, "Homoeopathy". Approximately 30 per cent of them have their own laboratories. About 14 laboratories in Buenos Aires prepare homoeopathic medicines.

In this country, Homoeopathy has a good standing and most of the physicians are Hahnemannian homoeopaths. At present there are more than 500 physicians practising unified Homoeopathy.As for the source of information the country has two periodicals namely; "Annales Homoeopatics Argentinos', and the, 'Homoeopatia', Rio Bomba, 118-Buenos Aires (Argentina).In Argentina, the homoeopathic remedies are duly accepted by the Ministry of Public Health and the pharmacies and the laboratories prepare and. sell with any freedom, their medicines under the same controls as those on general remedies.

Austria

Homoeopathy was introduced in Austria in around 1870. The teaching here follows intensive seminars that are held twice a year in the months of March and October. In the intervening period, the training can continue at the Ludwig Boltzmann Institute of Homoeopathic, located at the Allgemeine Polikiinikder Stadt, Wien. This Institute is attended by 30 Medical Dactors and the lectures are delivered on every. Thursday. It has ambulance arrangements in all the Departments such as Out-patients, Hospital patients. Clinical pharmacology

and Veterinary Medicine. The teaching is given by systemic courses known as Step-I, Step-II and Step-III. The country is well up in homoeopathic pharmaceuticals having three homoeopathic factories. Various committee have been set-up for the research work, which comprise of "Dokumentation on Vienna Polyclinic", "Clinical Research for Hypertonie on University", 'Veterinary Medicine', "Experimental Research Technic," "Physical Research on Technic University" and "Remedy Proofing Vrenna PolycIinic." The pharmacists number 12 in the country. Publications are few, which seem to be based on the syllabus prescribed for the homoeopathic teachings and training. The country has good public relations media for the spread of Homoeopathy. In this, there is a set programme of television film show of 25 minutes with the topic "Homoeopathic" television discussion of four hours every alternative day, besides other means of mass communications, radio talks and congress meetings. The present membership of the international Homoeopathic League from this country is 60.

Belgium

The beginning of the Homoeopathy Belgium was very precocious. Before the death of Dr. Hahnemann in 1843,

Dr. G.H.G Jahr was already practising Homoeopathy in Belgium and wrote several books in French, on the use of drugs. Dr. Jahr, with 20 other doctors have been doing pioneer work for Homoeopathy before the end of the 19th centuly. Later on 13 other renowned doctor of Belgium continued their work for the publication of the homoeopathic principles in the country. Simultaneously the periodical named 'Revue International D-La Doctrine Homoeopathique' was brought out by Dr. H. Jorez.

At present there are two homoeopathic associations which are: 1. La Federation Medicale Homoeopathique Belge, ASBI, and 2. Less Amis De Homoeopathe. Between the two the former is having a membership of about 150, of whom 15 members are the members of the Royal Belgium Homoeopathy Society. The latter is in existence since 1972, which is meant for lay-public, is having a membership of about 1500. The teaching courses are three: the first, being L-Ecole Belge De Homoeopathic from the Federation Homoeopathique Belges. The second, is the Post-graduate course undertaken on every Wednesday. The third, is meant for the students and takes place every Friday. There is also a quarterly Journal named La-Revue Belge De Homoeopathic which serves as a media of information.

Brazil

Brazil has the honour of being the seat of innumerable meetings on Homoeopathy both national and international. There exists in a medical school belonging to the Federal Government, an optional teaching of homoeopathic medicine, with four chairs, two of Meteria Medica, one of Clinical Therapeutics and one of the Medical Homoeopathic Clinic.

The name of the college is "Ecole de Medicine and Ciruvgia do Rio de Janeiro", The students of the college are taught homoeopathic subjects during the first three years whereafter they pursue only allopathic subjects in which they are examined at the final examination. Subsequently, those that are interested in Homoeopathy, on the basis of the lectures received during the first three years of their course, fellow post-graduate lectures conducted by national level homoeopathic association called the "Institute Hahnemannian Do Brasil" which has its headquarters in the same college premises. The language here followed is Portugese.

In Sao Paulo there exists the well-known 'Associacao Panlista de Homoeopatia' which brings together the whole of the homoeopathic doctors of that important State of Brazil which has completed 125 years of its existence.Here the Homoeopathy has the privilege by having the State patronage and encouragement. According to a Government Law of 1952, it is obligatory to conduct the teachings of the nations of Homoeopathic Technique in all the Chemical Faculties of the country.

Since July 1961, it has been made obligatory that Homoeopathy be taught in Medical College, commencing with the opening of the Guanabera Medical Faculty in which there are six obligatory courses in Homoeopathy and companion subjects for each year of a Medical College. In December 1965, the manipulation, writing of prescription, industrialization and also sale of homoeopathic drugs were regulated by a Government degree. By the official provision dated Feb. 28, 1966, the Director of the National Department of Health approved a Committee of the physicians and pharmaceutists with the scope of creating the 'Brazilian Homoeopathic pharmacopoeia which was finally officialized in 1972. Apart from this, the Director of the National Service of Fiscalisation of Medicine and Pharmacy vide official provision No. 17 of August 22, 1966 issued instructions regarding the installation and operation of homoeopathic drug stores.

In 1954 when the World Homoeopathic Congress was held at Rio de Janeiro, the same was officially recognised by the Governments of Argentina, Maxico and Brazil. Decorations of the "Order of Hahnemann" instituted by the degree of the President of Brazil, were granted to the dignatories of the homoeopathic profession. The streets of Rio de Janeiro were beflagged in honour of the members and delegates of the Congress. Not only this, but the Brazilian Government had also put into circulation the first postage stamp referring to Homoeopathy to commemorate the occasion. Another stamp, this one of Hahnemann was put into circulation in 1954.

It is worth mentioning here that in Porto Alegre, the first monument to Hahnemann in South America was elected in 1943 in a public square. This entity now prossesses three dispensaries of its own in working class suburbs, which have already dealt with more than one and a half lacs consultations, at Rio de Janeiro, Hospital Caffree de Guinle, ambulatory of homoeopathic and another in Institute Biomedica Rua Frei Caneca No. 49, Rio de Janeiro GB (Brazil).

The number of the homoeopathic doctors known are estimated at about 150 comprising of about 110 in Rio de Janeiro and 40 in Sao Paulo and other States. As to the homoeopathic laboratories there are five or six large ones and 50 of pharmaceutical chemists spread throughout the country. As to the Homoeopathic journals, in addition to the 'Anais Do Institute Hahnemanniano Do Brazil'. (Published by the Ligaomoeopatica do Rio Grande do Sul), 'Revista De Homoeopatia' (da Associacao Paulista de Homoeopatia) 'Similia' 'Ex-review of the Liga Homoeopatia do Rs', 'A Voz de Homoeopatia,'

There is also an Editorial viz. 'Homoeopathica Brasileira' with 11 books published one of them being the 6th edition of the 'Organon'. All out efforts are being made to increase the number of homoeopathic publications, not only for the doctors but also for the students and laymen, In order to increase the number of homoeopathic doctors in the country various course of Homoeopathy have been held to achieve the goals. In short, it is added that Homoeopathy in Brazil is regarded as a national subject, Apart from the information given here in above there are 9 monuments of the Great Homoeopaths in public squares (including 3 of Hahnemann) at Parto Alegre, (3) Sao Paulo, (2) Rio de Janeiro, (3) and (1) at Recife-Pernambuco.

Burma

Position before World War-II

No one can say who had introduced Homoeopathy in Burma and how; however,as far as is known it was the Indian community which was responsible for introducing Homoeopathy in Burma.

In Burma, particularly in Rangoon there were several homoeopaths mostly Indians and a few Burmese. There were two Homoeopathic Medical Colleges in Rangoon which were running with strict requirements for admission. One was the International Homoeopathic Medical College with Dr. S.K. Ghosh as Principal and the other the Provincial Homoeopathic Medical College with Dr. T.C. Darham as the Principal. In the former college, regular and practical classes were conducted for L.H.M.S., M.B.H. and for postgraduate course for M.D.H. too. As for the Provincial Homoeopathic College, the classes were conducted regularly on theory and practice for L.H.M.S. degree for two years, and for M.B.H. three years, and postgraduate course degree of H.M.D. This college was affiliated with Institute of Sciences, Allahabad (India). Both the colleges had rendered good service and had produced many good homoeopaths in Burma. In spite of many obstacles, Homoeopathy was flourishing, there were many practioners, and a good many pharmacies in Rangoon. There, was one homoeopathic society in Rangoon known as 'Burma Homoeopathic Society' established in 1926 and reorganised in the year 1938. Though homoeopaths and Homoeopathy were not recognised by the Government, however, it was heading its way gradually towards popularity when unexpectedly the World War II was declared and the progress was stopped. When Burma was reoccupied by the Allied Forces, in Rangoon many free dispensaries were established by the St. John i Ambulance Brigade. Dr. T.G. Darham, the then Corps Officer and Homoeopathic member of the Brigade was treating patients in these dispensaries homoeopathically too, After the political freedom of Burma, there were some who became representatives of institutions abroad and conducted classes ; many homoeopaths were produced and Homoeopathy was appreciated by the people, ; and now in major cities of Burma one can see homoeopaths. While the political Government was in power a Law was passed that no one except Allopathic practitioners and those registered by the Medical Board should prefix the word Dr. before their names. The 'Burma Homoeopathic Society' conducts homoeopathic classes and issues certificates. It also runs a free dispensary in Rangoon at Thakeda having daily 30 to 40 patients (in prewar days there was a free Homoeopathic Dispensary in Rangoon). Homoeopaths in Burma have to depend for the homoeopathic medicines entirely on foreign countries like India, Germany and U.S.A., the reason being lack of pharmaceutical works of Homoeopathy in Burma. In spite of various difficulties, the future of Homoeopathy here seems bright.

Chile

Here, Homoeopathy was introduced by a Spanish Physician named Dr. Benito Garcia Fernandez.

Apart from being a very capable physician he was also an author and translator as well. He published several books on Homoeopathy including the Spanish translation of Hahnemann's 'Organon' and Hering's Domestic Homoeopathic Medicine in 1855. In 1861 he also published a Handbook on Homoeopathic Materia Medica and opened a centre for the service of poor peoples.

In 1947, both medical and non-medical persons interested in intellectuals and financial support for Homoeopathy created organisation called 'Homoeoptby Association of Chile' which still exists with legal authorisation. Later on, the medical doctors formed another organisation which is known the 'Chilean Homoeopathic Medical Association'. There is a variable interest in lectures, meetings and courses that every year the medical society promotes.

In addition, there is an other association called, 'Sociedad de Quimicos-Farmaceutico Homoeopathas'. In the field of Homoeopathic Drug Manufacturing, there exist four pharmaceuticals to cater for the needs of the physicians.

Several publications, have kept alive the interest in .Homoeopathy in the country. 'El Homoeopatia, under the direction of Mr. Paul Bolzinger, appeared from 1936 to 1938. After that 'Medicine Homoeopatia' was published under the direction of Mr. Alfredo Serey, creator also of a laboratory for preparing the homoeopathic remedies according to the principles of Homoeopathy. This journal was in circulation from 1938 to 1946 and was replaced then by the present 'Divulgacion de la Homoeopatia' under the directorship of Dr. Kurt Hochstetter who leads also Homoeopathic laboratories and pharmacy. Nash Guiding Symptoms has also been published in the Spanish language.

In spite of the official creation of an homoeopathic chair by degree of the Government school and a programme on an introduction to Homoeopathy at Radio Portales on every Tuesday as well as 'Samuel Hahnemann Award,' being given by the Institute Hahnemannian International to the best reporter, there are problems in practising an prescribing Homoeopathy. The Association still offers attention to poor people with collaboration of the doctors belonging to medical society.

However, homoeopathic unitary medicines are now considered "generics" and 200 items have been registered. The present number of the members of International Homoeopathic League from Chile is 10.

Deutschland (W. Germany)

Germany is the birth place of Homoeopathy. It is still flourishing in Germany even after the last destructive war. Here the chief centre for education previously was at the Robert Bosch Krankenhans (means Hospital), which is located at Hahnemann Strasse, Stuttgart, With the change of Deans, this institution does not offer much homoeopathic eaching although it still has the most precious and unique Hahnemann Museum. This contains the original records and manuscripts of Hahnemann and carries out literary research in the history death in 1843 and is reputed to be the German line of Homoeopathy. Further development of the classical Homoeopathy has primarily been accomplished by J.T. Kent and his working team in the United States of America. On the basis of the 'Organon' and with the aid of the Repertory by Kent, methods have been developed, known today as Kentism, helping many a homoeopathists to achieve success.

Besides the followers of the scientific critical direction in Germany there have always been some outstanding personalities like Emil Schlegel, Karl Stauffer and Paul Dhalke who supported the line of this direction and became famous. After the end of World War-II the situation changed in Germany. Particularly through the influence of few classical homoeopaths like Pierre Schmidt, Voegeli, Flury and Haenni who came from Switzerland, and made Kent's methods known to science. Haug Verlag in Heidelberg, deserve good praise .for an excellent translation of the 'Repertory' by Kent. These publishers also edit the two homoeopathic magazines viz. Allegemeine Homoeopathische Zeitung and "Acta Homoeopathica". In the meantime Kent's method became well-known among the German homoeopaths and found growing application.

Teachers of the scientific critical direction of Homoeopathy in Germany were Wapler in Leipzing and Stiegele in Stuttgart. Supported by the industrialist, Robert Bosch in Stuttgart, Stiegele was able to build a great hospital, the 'Homoeopathisches Robert Bosch Krankenhaus' and to make it a centre of homoeopathic studies famous far beyond the German borders. But due to unfavourable circumstances Homoeopathy has no longer priority in this hospital these days and consequently it has lost its function as a centre of homoeopathic training.

A French teacher of Homoeopathy, Henry Vcisin developed a clinically bound Homoeopathy on similar lines as Stiegele. Quite a number of German homoeopaths turned to him. The publishers Haug Verlag made his books accessible. Vcisin's comprehensive knowledge of remedies and his great been experience have a good echo in Germany since his mentality corresponds with that of his German colleagues.

Several publications, have kept alive the interest in .Homoeopathy in the country. 'El Homoeopatia, under the direction of Mr. Paul Bolzinger, appeared from 1936 to 1938. After that 'Medicine Homoeopatia' was published under the direction of Mr. Alfredo Serey, creator also of a laboratory for preparing the homoeopathic remedies according to the principles of Homoeopathy. This journal was in circulation from 1938 to 1946 and was replaced then by the present 'Divulgacion de la Homoeopatia' under the directorship of Dr. Kurt Hochstetter who leads also Homoeopathic laboratories and pharmacy. Nash Guiding Symptoms has also been published in the Spanish language.

The Central figure of German Homoeopathy also known here is Otto Leeser. After the First World War, he began his career as a homoeopathic doctor whereby he precisely observed the scientific medicine from the very beginning and since he had also studied chemistry, compared the results with the Materia Medica. He was the first homoeopath to write a Text-book for Homoeopathy in four volumes. The first volume deals with the foundations of medical science. In it the pre liminaries of modern medicine like wise those homoeopathic medicines are described. The second volume discusses the mineral remedies the third volume the herbal remedies and the fourth volume the animal remedies. The excellence of this life-work is to be found in the fact that not all but many possibilities of efficacy in Homoeopathy have been explained which so far had been on the background of scientific research of our time. After Stiegele, Leeser was nominated Medical Director of the Robert Bosch Krankenhaus and he held his office till his death.

In East Germany there is also an organisation of German homoeopathists which was established with the name of Deutscher Zentralverein. It consists of approximately 1000 members and admits solely medical men who have completed academic degree. Every year this organisation holds a congress to discuss various scientific themes.The German homoeopaths have a number of homoeopathic hospitals at their disposal, among them the most outstanding is in Munich. Unfortunately, the Robert Bosch Krankedhaus is now almost closed for Homoeopathy.

With the medical organisation in the Federal Republic of Germany, an agreement has been made that after graduation a German doctor can receive his homoeopathic training through the 'Deutscher Zentralverein'.

After complecation of the latter, he is entitled to add on his signboard the word Homoeopathy. This training can be achieved in courses. Anually about 80 to 100 doctors participate in these courses, studying Homoeopathy with deligence and zeal. In addition to that a Remedy Test with oneself has to be carried out with exact observasion of the appearing symptoms.

In this connection I would like to mention our most significant German pharmacist Julius Mezger of Stuttgart, who himself has carried out numerous and important tests new in kind. He has published a 'Homoeopathic Pharmacology' highly esteemed in German speaking areas. In his book this experienced homoeopath attempts to unify the results of scientific research in which he succeeds excellently. The 'Deutsche Homoeopathic Union' produces all customary remedies in all potencies, also in ampoules, and places them at the disposal of homoeopathic doctors all over the world.

France

There is an evidence to believe that Homoeopathy is finding considerable favour in France. In the last 30 years or so it has assumed an important expansion of which progress is hastening quickly.

The allopathic journals have published several articles on the subject. The number of qualified homoeopathic doctors has increased considerably during this period. At present, there are more than one thousand practitioners who practice Homoeopathy primarily as the main activity of their profession. Besides, a large number of Veterinary Surgeons and dentists employ homoeopathic remedies. More than, three thousand doctors prescribe homoeopathic remedies in more or less percentage of cases according to their knowledge and are going to prescribe them more and more. With the increase of the homoeopathic practitioners almost all the chemist shops are dispensing homoeopathic remedies more or less rapidly.

Since many years there exists a private diploma of Homoeopathy delivered by 3 schools. After 3 years of studies this diploma is rectified by an examination conducted by the 'National French Homoeopathic Institute.' (The Institute National Homoeopathic Francais). This school has 7 branches in the various parts of the country viz., Paris, Lyon, Bordeaux, Clermont-Ferrand, Dauphine-Savoie, Marseille and Touloues. All of them are the members of the International Homoeopathic Medical League. Besides, there is a 'French Homoeopathic Centre.' where monthly sessions are held for teaching clinical or pathological lessons. Once or twice a year there are sessions mostly reserved for the students. Apart from these 3 schools which, since 1976 are federated in the French School of Homoeopathy exist several Centres which organise seminars. These are known as "Homoeopathique Documentation Centres" In addition there is an Institute of Research of the Medical Society of Bio therapy where some doctors, on individual initiative, meet little groups of students in Strasbarg Lille, Limoge 5, Granoble and Mulhouse. The country is having 2 homoeopathic hospitals, one at Paris and the other at Lyon, and 3 dispensaries at Paris. In these dispenseries 50 thousand patients are seen every year.

Many homoeopathic associations exist in France. The greatest part of them have grouped together into 'The National Federation of Medical Homoeopathique Societies. 'Every Easter there is a National Congress. Every autum there is a demonstration in Paris whose purpose is perfecting the 'practical knowledge. The Bio-therapy Society also has some activities in Homoeopathy. Besides the Scientific Societies the French Homoeopathic practitioners have 2 trade unions which depend the moral (ethical) and material interest of their members.The French Association for Research in Homoeopathy' is new but its importance is growing. Its purpose is to animate, guide, encourage and coordinate the Homoeopathic a Research in France.

Every year there takes place the 'Assises Homoeopathique Scientiques' in connection with the International Committee of Research in Homoeopathy and under the shield of the International Medical Homoeopathic League. There are about 4 regular journals published in French. The first is 'Les Annales Homoeopathiques Francaise' which is published six times a years by the Federation with a circulation of 12 hundred copies. The second is 'L- Homoeopathique Francaise' which is published 10 times a year with a circulation of about 11 thousand copies. The third is Les Cahiers Bio-therapic.' and the fourth is le-Billctin-du Syndicat National des Medicine Homoeopathics.

As for books, France is probably the country which has published greatest number of its works about Homoeopathy. The well, known authors here are Dr. Aubin, Demarque, Joly, Ph. Picard, Jouanny, Julian, Maurin, Meuris, Vallette, Zissue et Guillaume, J. Barbancey, Horvilleur, etc, Homoeopathy is officially legalised for France on Pharmaciticale level. The French Government has recognised the Homoeopathic Pharmacopoeia since 1965.

France is the country where dental homoeopathy is working an autonomous branch of Homoeopathy besides pharmacy and medicine. This work is being conducted by three Associations of Odontostomatologists. These Association have regular sessions with much participation. They publish papers in the different dental services and organise sessions of formation and give perfect courses. Many theses of Homoeopathy have been written in the last few years for the doctorate of dental surgery.

France has the honour of having given hospitality to Hahnemann during the last years of his life, and of enabling him to come more into the limelight as Paris was indeed one of the most important places in Europe.

The last remains of the master are lying bursed in the Special Cementeric de pere 'L'achaise, amidst France's famous dead. It is noteworthy that the memorial built at this site was raised by the international donations, but now it is maintained by the Government of France.

Great Britain

Homoeopathy was first established in England in the vear 1832 when Dr. Harvey Quin, a friend of Hahnemann and called by Richard Haehl `Hahnemann's chief successor' set up in practice in London. He developed a very successful homoeopathic practice and became very popular in the social circles of his day. Through him Homoeopathy became a popular talking point, so much so that when a book was published by Dr. W. Henderson, Prof. of Pathology at Edinburgh University, defending Homoeopathy against a detractor the first edition was sold out within 3 months.

This nineteenth century produced many other notable homoeopathic physicians, among them Dr. W. Henderson who instituted clinical tests of homoeopathic theories at the Edinburgh Royal Infirmary, Dr. J. H. Clarke and Dr. J. Compton Burnett both eminent physicians and writers on Homoeopathy and Dr. Richard Hughes whose work is commemorated by the "Richard Hughes Memorial Lectures" held each year at the Royal London Homoeopathic Hospital.

In 1850 the first London Homoeopathic Hospital was opened in Golden Square, providing accommodation for 25 in-patients plus out-patient facilities. In 1854 a cholera epidemic broke out in London and the Hospital was entirely given over to the treatment of the cholera victims. The mortality satistics of the patients treated at the Homoeopathic Hospital were only 16.8% whereas it exceeded 50% for other hospitals. An attempet was made by the orthodox school to suppress these figures. However, the matter was raised by Lord Grosvenor and Parliament ordered that the figures be printed in a Parliamentary paper, which can be seen to this day.

Homoeopathy was faced with further official attack afler the Crimean War when the Registration Bill was passed by the House of Commons and which contained a clause for-bidding doctors to practise any form of medicine which was not taught in Medical schools. When the Bill reached the House of Lords, however, Lord Grosvenor (now Lord Ebury) again rose in defence of Homoeopathy and reminded the House of the cholera figures and this resulted in'the clause being defeated. An amendment was even added to the Bill which made it illegal for a doctor to be penalised on account of an orthodox belief and this is how the Law stands today.

In 1859 the Hospital moved to its present site in Great Ormond Street where it opened with 50 beds. The success of the Hospital necessiated a larger site and the present building was opened in 1896 by H. R. H. The Duchess of Tech. The Sir Henry Tyler Wing was added to it in 1909 and in the same years site of the Nurses Home, opposite the Hospital, was secured and the Home was opened in 1912. In 1877, instigated by Dr. Quin, the London School of Homoeopathy had been established and in 1895 the School was emerged with the Hospital, the full name of which becames. The London Homoeopathic Hospital and School of Medicine, The Hospital received the honour of Royal Patronage in 1920 when H.R.H. The Royal Charter of Incorporation was granted by the Prive Council. In September 1948 the hospital was granted the use of the prefix 'Royal'. Today the Hospital is under the patronage of Her Majesty the Queen.

Apart from the 'Royal Londan Homoeopalhic Hospital', there are five other homoeopathic hospitils in the British Isles, The largest is the 'Glasgow Homoeopathic Hospital' which also has a separate children's hospital and was founded in 1914. The other hospitals are situated in Bristol (1925), Tunbridge Wells (1890) and Liverpool (1837). The last mentioned hospital has recently become a part of the Liverpool Clinic and moved into the new teaching, hospital in Liverpool. A homoeopathic clinic, which started as a Dispensary in 1860 ,in Manchester has been running very successfully ever since. Other homoeopathic clinics have been opened in Bath, Leeds and Chichester.

In 1948 the 'Homoeopathic Reserach and Educational Trust (now the Homoeopathic Trust) was formed and since then it has been responsible for raising and administering funds for the educational work of the Faculty of Homoeopathy which is housed with the Trust alongside the Royal London Homoeopathic Hospital and is known as the Research Unit. Besides the research is also regularly carried out by University of Glasgow and the Midlands Homoeopathic Research Group.

The Trust has sponsored research projects of many kinds. Drug provings have been sponsored for 20 years and research projects include homoeopathic treatment of respiratory diseases, skin diseases, cancer, influenza and maladjusted children. The 'Scottish Homoeopathy Trust' together with the Body Research Fellowship finances research into the action of homoeopathic medicines in high potencies which is being undertaken in the Department of Physiology of Glasgow University.

The 'British Faculty of Homoeopathy' is mainly concerned with the teaching of the principles and practice of Homoeopathy to qualified doctors and answering enquiries from the general public as to the availability of homoeopathic treatment. The majority of the members of the Faculty are in general practice. Its present membership is 333 qualified doctors who are also the members of the International Homoeopathic Medical League. In addition, there are 43 associate members—5 Veterinary Surgeons, 20 Pharmacists, 13 Nurses and 5 Dental Surgeons. In Great Britain, Homoeopathy is not studied in undergraduate medical schools as it is in many other countries and the training carried out by the Faculty consists of Post-graduate courses which are solely for doctors who have already obtained a degree in orthodox allopathic medicine and who hold a qualification (British or Foreign) recognised by the British General Medical Council.

Both long 'and short intensive courses are provided. The long course lasts for one academic year at the end of which candidates may sit for the Membership Examination. Teaching is given at the Royal London Homoeopathic Hospital on Homoeopathic Materia Medica and Therapeutics and Repertorisation: and includes clinical ward rounds, lectures, tutorial sessions and experience in case-taking in out-patients' clinics.

The short intensive courses are held each year during February, May and October. These courses were started in 1965 by the present Dean of the Faculty, Dr. Morgery Bllackie to enable busy general practitioners to gain rapidly a working knowledge of Homoeopathy, but requiring only minimam absence from their practices. The success of these short intensive courses has proved the extent of the need for such G, P. training. Attendances have risen steadily. In 1971 the average attendance was 30 doctors and by 1976 it reached over 70 at each course, Doctors from many other countries come to London to attend both long and short courses. The 'Scottish Branch of the Faculty' also organises week-end courses for general practitioners twice a year at the Glasgow Homoeopathic Hospital.

Associate Membership of the Faculty is open to medical practitioners on the Register of the British General Medical Council upon the recommendation of two existing Members of Fellows and election by a majority vote of the Council of the Faculty. The examination for Membership of the Facility (M, F. Hom.) is held twice a year, in June and December and can be taken after comptetion of the long course. Doctors who have attended at least 6 short intensive courses may sit for the membership examination when they have gained sufficient clinical experience as Supernumerary Clinical Assistants under consultants in the Homoeopathic Hospitals.The Faculty sponsors extra-mural lectures on Homoeopathy in other hospitals and medical schools and also publishes a quarterly journal known as 'The British Homoeopathic Journal' which has a world-wide circulation.

A library is maintained for the members of the Faculty and this consists of a collection of books for reference and leading and since 1973 a large collection of cassette, tape recordings of lectures from past courses and congresses has been built up. The library also has a collection of Journals, both British and foreign, and has a collection of books for sale. Outside London, provincial groups under their Regional Tutors organise seminars for doctors and these have now become a regular feature, One-day seminars for London Medical sudents organised by the Dean of the Faculty, have also become a regular annual event. Another event which promises to become a regular feature is the External Nurses Day, consisting of lectures given for District Nurses from 'other hospitals. The first such 'Day' was held in October 1976 and 76 nurses attended.

The 'British Homoeopathie Congress' is held every other year. The needs of lay people who are interested in Homoeopathy, are catered for by the 'British Homoeopathic Association', (27 A, Devonshire Street, London WIN IRJ) though many doctors are also members. The Association was founded in 1909 with the aim of promoting the knowledge and use of Homoeopathy. It has a library and provides an information service dealing with enquiries from the general public. It publishes guides and monographs and a bi-monthly journal called 'Bontoeopathy' which is issued free to members The Association also organises meetings and seminars and a very successful seminar was held on May 1, 1976 in Bristol.

Another lay organisation is the 'Hahnemann, Society' which was founded in 1968. Like the British Homoeopathic Association it provides information and promotes the study of Homoeopathy. The Society issues a quarterly 'News Letter' to its members. There have been numerous homoeopathic research projects conducted in the British and some of the more interesting ones are detailed as follows:

In 1941 tests to ascertain whether or not high potencies could be proved to be clinically active were conducted by Dr. J. Paterson and Dr. W. E. Boyd. High potencies of Diphtherinum were given to some volunteers and high potencies of Alum. Precipitated Toxoid to others to test immunity to diphtheria. Both were found to be active and in one group the susceptibility was reduced to 39.4%.

In the same year, after an enquiry made to Messrs A. Nelson & Co., the homoeopathic parmacy, by the Ministry of Home Security research was conducted by Dr. W. L. Templetion to ascertain whether skin lesions caused by the application of mustard gas could be helped by the oral administration of potentised Mustard gas and Rhustox Icodendron, and the results proved positive.

Between 1946 and 1952 research to determine whether high potencies of Mercuric Chloride could influence the digestion of starch by malt diastase was conducted by Dr.W. E. Boyd and proved successful.

Between 1968 and 1970 a survey of the effectiveness of a homoeopathic nosodes as compared with an allopathic vaccine for influenza was carried out and the result proved the nosode influenzium to be more effective. 19.7% of the allopathic group contracted influenza as opposed to 6.5% of the homoeopathic group and the number of working days lost by the allopathic group was 8½ imes greater than those lost by the homoeopathic group. Research in the 1960's by Professor Barnard at the National Physical Laboratory has shown that with high potencies the original substance is not measurable and no trace of it remains but the structure of the molecules of the diluent carrying the potency has been altered and re-arranged. No account of Homoeopathy in England would be complete without detailing the main figures in British homoeopathic field during this century.

Sir John Weir did much to maintain homoeopathic education on a firm footing. In 1911 he was appointed the compton Burnett Lecturer on Materia Medica and he held this appointment for over 40 years. During the 1914-18 War he organised meeting of doctors to discuss various homoeopathic topics and with the help of Drc. Wheeler, Borland and Rorke, he re-established regular courses after the First World War. Sir John Weir greatly helped to bridge the gap between Homoeopathy and the orthodox school and in 1932 he was invited to speak on Homoeopathy before the Royal Society of Medicine and also in the same year at the British Medical Association Convention. After the First World War, Sir John was appointed Physician to King George V and Queen and he was knighted in 1932.

Dr. Charles Wheeler, brilliantly versatile and talented, having been a poet, play wright, and linguist, as well as the author of the best homoeopathic text-books in the English language, was always eager to encourage the talents of other doctors. He did much to guide and assist the discoveries of Dr. Edward Bach and Dr. John Paterson in their original researches on bowel nosodes which were a unique British contribution to the homoeopathic Materia Medica. '

One of the most distinguished contemporaries was Dr. Margaret Tyier who was Bean of the Faculty and author of the well known books "Homoeopathic Drug Pictures" and 'Pointers to the. Common Remedies.' Dr. Tyler organised scholarships to enable six British doctors to go to the United States before the First World War and study Homoeopathy under Kent in Chicago. She was an indefatigable fund-raiser, teacher and editor, and an inspiration to a whole generation of doctors who studied under her and practised with her in the hospital out-patient clinics between the war Sir John Weir and Dr. Tyler's contribution to homoeopathic education has been furthered by the present Dean of the Faculty of Homoeopathy Dr. Margery Blackie, a Physician to the Queen, who has done much by instituting the short intensive courses and and Extra-mural lectures to attract large number of general practitioners to the study of Homoeopathy. Her book 'The Patunt, Not the Cure', has gained a worldwide reputation.

One of the latest developments in Britain has been the impact on the general public of a number of television programmes about Homoeopathy, which has helped to change the general climate of opinion and disperse much of the ignorance on the subject. The President of the Faculty, Dr. Geoffry the Martin, and the former President Dr. Charles Kenedy were among the doctors who took part in television programmes. These were follow by a state of publicity in the popular press that led to an overwhelming public demand for homoeopathic treatment from the homoeopathic hospitals and general practitioners.

Despite all these time-consuming activities on fever than four fellows of the Faculty have published books in the last two years. Le by Dr. Blackie, Dr. Mitchell, Dr. Mount an Dr. Ledermann have all had books publishe in 1975 and 1976 which augurs well for the future.

The Laws and Regulations of the Homoeopathy are incoporated by the Act of Parliament (called the Faculty of Homoeopath Act 1950).

Greece

Homoeopathy was very poorly represented in Greece upto 1965. Only isolated doctor practised it from time to time, the last of these being Dr. J, Picramenos, the fathes of the Odontastomotologist and Dr. Steves Picramenos, Secretary-General of the 'Hellenic Society of Homoeopathic Medicine'.

The meeting of two people in 1965 was destined to start a new line of development. It was during that year that Mr. George Vithoulkas, a student of the Bombay Homoeopathic Medical College and an experienced prescriber met Dr. Irene Bachas, an active psychiarist the time. Mr. Vithoulkas' deep love and enthusiasm for Homoeopathy infected Dr. Bachas. She studied with him during the next 18 months and in 1967 she attended the post-graduate course of the Faculty of Homoeopathy in London.

The two pioneers gave all they had to their work but it was not enough. A bigger push was needed. So the Liga was approached for help. At the International Congress of Delhi in 1967, the Council accepted a proposal from Dr. William Gutman, that Triennial Congress of 1969 be held in Athens.

That Congress was actually organised by only three people : Dr. Garzonis, Dr, Bachas and Mr. Vithoulkas. During the Congress they were aided by the friends of Homoeopathy. And the Congress was a great success as well as an unforgettable experience for its organisers

That Congress was the most important milestone in the history of Homoeopathy in Greece so far.

Always under the supervision and guidance of Mr. Vithoulkas a series of seminars was started for doctors and medical students. Meanwhile Mr. Vithoulkas had written a book about Homoeopathy which Was published in Athens in 1969, An English version of this book was published in U.S.A. under the title 'Homoeopathy The Medicine of the New man,'and it drew a great deal of interest. Recently a Spanish translation appeared in Mexico and translations into French and German are in the course of preparation.

In an effort to make accessible to Greek-speaking people as much as possible from the treasure of the homoeopathic bibliography, the publication of a quarterly journal has been started.

Since the work of D. Argenti, entitled 'Homoeopathische Behandulung Verschiedener Krankheiten Pest 1860, there was no other text-book published in Hungary. An information material by G. Schimert written for physicians and entitled 'Allopathia-Homoeopathia' was published in 1928. Articles written by Hungarian physicians on the subject appeared in the `Allgemeine Homoeopathische Zeitung, one of the oldest German printed periodicals, founded in 1832 and which is published in Heidelberg, West Germany.

A remarkable and worth-mentioning material is exhibited in the Semmelwe is Museum on history of Medicine, in Budapest which gives also a rich survey on Homoeopathic efforts in the 19th century. A visit to this museum is highly recommended.

A group of the LHMI Congress 1973 participants, which Congress took place in Vienna (Austria) visited Budapest for two days in the frame of a post-congress tour which offered a possibility to renew relations with the leading members of the LHMI.

Italy

Homoeopathy is not taught in Italian Universities. Just recently as the University of L'Aquila, acupuncture is being taught, under the form of reflex therapy.

There are no homoeopathic pharmaceutical laboratories in ltlay. Homoeopathic medicines are being imported, with the permission of the Ministry of Health, Among the eldest members of homoeopathic medicine is Prof. Dr. Antonio Negro who has given a national structure to Homoeopathy.

There are at the moment two official structures: "Accademia Italiana di Medicina

Omeopatica Roma" and "Institution di Medicina Omeopatica, Milana; Centro di Medicina Omeopatica, Napoli". The 'Accademia italiana' (Italian Academy) is concerned with circulation, teaching, exchange with foreign countries, preparation of congress, library, magazine and book series. At the Academy, triennial specialisation courses in homoeopathic medicine are held for doctors and undergraduates in Medicine and biennial courses of acupunctures for the same. At the end of each course, a diploma is issued which can only be given to doctors who are already enrolled in the medical list.

The number of students in each academic year is approximately 200. in the whole of Italy there are also other medical centres and obviously private doctors. In the whole country there are about 10 homoeopathic dispensaries and 100 Homoeopathic pharmacists. According to a Report based on the year 1974-75, there were 148 members of 'the international Homoeopathic Medical League from Italy.

As regards publications there is a journal known as 'Rassegna di Medicida Omeopatica' being published continuously for over 25 years. In addition, a series of books on Homoeopathy and acupuncture have been published at the direction of Dr. Antonia Negro.

Malaysia

As back as in 1938 there were two homoeopathic centres established in Malaya, which were known as 'Malayan Homoeopathic Centres". One of these centres was in the Colony of Singapore and the other in Johore Baharu. Johore is federated by Malay States run by Prof. Col. A.S. Rajah and Prof. Burhanuddin.

On other side Dr. Edward Me Carthy Heyzer also came to Singapore and spread the homoeopathic system of medicine to the public.

In 1961, a Society of the hoaoeopths was formed known as 'Homoeopathic Society of Malaya' (later on Malaysia).

Mexico

In 1896 Homoeopathy was declared official doctrine in Mexico through a Presidential decree that created the 'National School of Homoeopathic Medicine' and 'National Homoeopathic Hospital'. It has now 400 students on its roll. Another Institution, 'The Free School of Homoeopathy of Mexico' was founded in 1912 by the great master and teacher of Homoeopathy Dr. Higinio G. Perez, It has 182 students on its roll.

The course extends to a period of six years and a very thorough training is given in all the medical subjects in general as also in Homoeopathy. The speciality of the course here is that the training in surgery is given on living animals rather than on cadavers. This makes it far more like the conditions in normal operations.

It also gives the students practice in the administration of anaesthesia and of closely watching the post-operative recovery of these animals, which can be used for multiple operations. Secondly, the senior students get into small groups and establish regular clinics where the patients are kept under the close scrutiny of one of the senior teachers. This gives them ample practice in actual handling of patients by the time they have qualified.

In July 1974, for the first time, a post-graduate course in Homoeopathic Medicine and Surgery was introduced at the National School of Homoeopathic Medicine. The course was sponsored by the Hahnemann Medical Society of America. It had as many as 168 class-room hours plus additional seminars and workshops, hospital walks and lectures and also clinics in the various out-patient departments of the homoeopathic hospital. It was proposed to have simultaneous English-Spanish translations, but it is not yet known how effectively that was done.

In 1929 an International Congress of the Homoeopathic League was held in Mexico under the auspices of the Government in the rooms of the National Palace. The initiators of the Mexican Revolution, Francisco Madere, was a believer and a protoganist of the Homoeopathic Medical Sciences. Every Government since then has contributed to its development.

It is the country where several meetings of the Pan American Homoeopathic Medical Congress, of the National Homoeopathic Congress and World Congress as well as several meetings of the National Homoeopathic Hospital and two General Assemblies of the Association called 'Homoeopathy of Mexico', have been held.

Besides the National Homoeopathic Hospital, Mexico has another hospital "Higino C. Perer' that is next to the Free School of ; Homoeopathy. There are other small hospitals in which the patients of homoeopathic doctors have certain preferences.

Mexico has 480 homoeopathic pharmacies, 6 laboratories to prepare medicines and 5 Journals

1. La Homoeopatia de Mexico 2. La Homoeopatia en el Mundo.

3. Buletin Hahnemanniono. 4. Ciencia Homoeopatica. 5. Tlalacan.

In 1960 the 'Association Homoeopathy of Mexico' was founded specially with the purpose of teaching homoeopathy to doctors and professors of medicine. It imparts intensive regular courses, which are attended by many Mexican and foreign doctors, from Latin American countries, 'Homaeopathy of Mexico' also organizes seminars and conferences for ordinary people not only doctors. General assemblies of professionals and various other activities for efficient study of Homoeopathy are held.

There are in the Mexican Rupublic about 1000 homoeopathic doctors duly registered and another 1000, more or less, doctors who are not registered but who practice Homoeopathy without any control.

There are several associations of homoeopathic doctors of which the most active are : 1. Association of Homoeopathic Doctors of the Centre" 2. Association of Homoeopathic Medicine of Gundalajara 3. 'College of Homoeopathic Doctors D.R. Higinio G. 4. Perez' 5. 'College of Dr. Eulalio Dario Florea.' 6. 'Society Dr. Eutilio Lopez Vallejo', and others.

Nepal

The history of the development of Homoeopathy in Nepal is of quite recent origin and can be traced back to the time of King Tribhuvan. It got considerable impetus in 1923, when there was an epidemic of cholera in Kathmandu. In this crisis, a homoeopathic physician from Bengal treated a large number of people successfully with homoeopathic medicines.

A learned scholar Col. Ananta Sumsher, wrote a book in Nepali language, entitled 'Pasu Prabandha' wherein he pointed out how sick animals also can be cured by Homoeopathic medicines. With this book as a guide, the first Veterinary Hospital was established at Govt. level.

One scholarship was given every year for a student to study Homoeopathy in India under the Colombo Plan which was continued for a period of five years by His Majesty's Govt. from the year 1956.

His Majesty's Govt. of Nepal has established and is running a Homoeopathic Hospital in the vicinity of the famous temple of Lord Pasupatinath. It has an outdoor clinic and a small six bed indoor hospital attached. There is also a proposal for opening another 25 beded hospital in the country, Besides this, there are many charitable dispensaries and about 1,500 practitioners including amateurs.

His Majesty, the King of Nepal has a homoeopathic doctor on their panel of physician.

Netherlands

In Netherlands Homoeopathy is in exis-tence for about a century, presently having 152 qualified (M.D.) homoeopathic practitioners who are also the members of the International Homoeopathic League, These physicians have an Association called the 'Society of Homoeopathic Physicians in Netlerland', with a membership of 110. This Society organises various conferences and meetings at the national level which offer better chances for mutual discussions as well as the clinical demonstrations. Besides, there exists another Association of laymen

for the advancement of Homoeopathy. This society maintains a membership of about 700. The whole country is divided into various departments each of which has its own management. These operate overhead management. The departmental managements hold a propa- ganda-evening at least once a year, where usually an M. D. (Member of the Society Homoeopathic Physicians) holds a speech on the 'ubject of Homoeopathy. Besides this, the overhead management holds a general meeting for all the departments (management and members) once a year, also usually with a homoeopathic M. D. as speaker.

In Netherlands Homoeopathy is taught at the Vrije University, Amsterdam, at the Radbont University, Nijmegen and at the Rijks (State) University, Gromingen. At Amsterdam, teaching is undertaken by a private M.D. teacher and his courses are followed by an average of 50 medical students per college hour. At Nijmegen and Gromingen the courses are arranged by the "Society for the Interests of Medical Students". These courses are of two types viz. 'A'and'B'. Of these 'A' course is meant for M.D.'s and medical students. 'B' course is open to those only who have followed an 'A' course or who have followed the colleges of the private teacher at Brije University, Amsterdam.

There is no homoeopathic hospital in Netherlands. However, there is a Centre at Utrecht which is known as 'Slichting Homoeopathisch Centrum'. The research work is being carried out at the Alphen ad Riju and Pullus Gallinacens projects.

As for publications, two books viz. 'Homoeopathic Vadmecum' by H.P.J.A. Maas and Ilse Dorren and 'Homoeopathic Handbook for the Family' by H. Estine have been published. In addition, a journal named S.S.C. is published which appears 4 times in a year. Another magazine named 'Homoeopathic Review', is also published by the Society for the advancement of Homoeopathy, Some original lectures have also been published in the shape of papers comprising of some of the remedies of the Homoeopathic Mater; a Madica, Threapeutics and the Philosophy.

In short it can be said that in Netherlands Homoeopathy is growing everywhere. This is also confirmed with the fact that the section of the Veterinary Homoeopathic Surgeons has also been incorporated in the Royal Dutch Society of Veterinary Surgeons.

Nigeria

Homoeopathy is not yet regulated in Nigeria though Some homoeopaths had started practising Homoeopathy there as far back as fourties but the Federal Government did not recognise Homoeopathy due to the uncompromising attitude of the practitioners of other systems of medicine by giving the Government wrong information about the practice and education of Homoeopathy.

In April 1980, the 'Nigeria Medical Council has set a panel for the first time in the history of Africa to investigate the practice of Homoeopathy in Nigeria through the effort of the 'Nigerian Homoeopathic Medical Association' the oldest and the leading association and has been in struggles for the survival of Homoeopathy in Africa for more than 30 years'. In this struggle, many physicians have been serving many years imprisonment and many have died as a result of hardship during the struggle to get out of the court 'cases.

In Nigeria there are a few registered Homoeopathic Medical Physicians and over 100 Homoeopathic practioners. It has three Homoeopathic Institutions, the most prominent being the 'Nigerian Homoeopathic Medical College' atOron, which was established in 1977. The Institution neither gets financial assistance from the Federal Government nor the State Government. The pioneer students of the Institution have to face difficulties from lack of equipments, qualified staff and orher amenities due to the uncomprising attitudes of the former leaders of the Medical Council, This school is not yet been recognised by the Federal Government.

The Association has not been able to get due assistance from any of the Homoeopathic Organisations in the World despite repeated appeals for finacial assistance from individuals and other charitable oragnisations. The school is on the part of collapsing.

The Nigerian patients prefer the homoeopathic medical treatment than any other system of the treatment. They are growing a dislike for the allopathic treatment which becoming unpopular since the introduction of Homoeopathic medical treatment into the Society. This is the main reason why the allopathic doctors have prejudiced against the recognition of Homoeopathy in Nigeria.

Pakistan

The development of Homoeopathy in Pakistan is analogus to its development. Bharat. One has to have background of Homoeopathy in undivided India to know its development in Pakistan. The city of Lahore in Pakistan has the privilege of being the first city of undivided India, where Homoeopathy was introduced by Dr. J.M. Hoenigburger, a German Physician. He was the first homoeopath to settle in India in 1839. He remained in the East for thirtyfive years practising Homoeopathy. Dr. Hoenigburger cured with Dulcamara the then ruler of the Punjab, Maharaja Ranjit Singh, who was sick at Lahore.

Lahore being the Capital of the Punjab was the centre of socio-economic activities. The first Homoeopathic College of the Punjab was opened in Lahore in early 1920. It was started by an American Missionary, Dr, Freeburn and Maj. Dr. Sadiq Ali. This institution, the Central Homoeopathic Medical College, produced many eminent homoeopaths of India. The prominent homoeopaths of Punjab during that period were Dr. Diwan Jai Chand Dr. Nizamuddin, Dr. Khanchan Dev, Dr. R.D. Ghazi, Dr. Mohd. Masood Qureshi, Dr. Mohd. Ismail Akhtar and Dr. Mohd. Ismail Naini.

Although there were a number of homoeopathic associations during that period in India, the first 'All India Homoeopathic Medical Association' was formed in 1932. The first Congress session was held in Calcutta, second in Bombay and the third at Madras. In 1936 it met in Agra where it was decided that the homoeopaths should struggle for State recognition. This Congress also decided to register the homoeopaths of India, Dr.Goswami from Mathura was nominated as the Registrar. Dr. Ghazi, Dr. Masood and Dr. Nami were nominated to authenticate the applicants from the provinces of the Punjab and the Frontier.

Pakistan became independent on 14th August, 1947. A large number of homoeopaths migrated to Pakistan from India and similarly many migrated to India from Pakisthan. Dr.U.A. Pasha, Dr. Hamid and many eminent homoeopaths settled in Karachi and it in became the Centre of homoeopathic activities. The city of Lahore enjoyed second position to Calcutta regarding homoeopathic activities in un divided India, but after independence there was a full for a short period. Then Dr. M. Masood Qureshi took the initiative and the Pakistan Homoeopathic Association was formed but this Association was very short lived. Another body, Pakistan Homoeopathic Federation was formed in 1949, at Karachi.

The first Pakistan Homoeopathic Conferenence was held under the auspices of the Federation in Sept. 1949 at Karachi.

The Homoeopathic Bill was placed for the first time before Pakistan Legislative Assembly by Syed Noor Ahmed on January 5, 1950. Syed Noor Ahmed had also moved a Bill in the Legislative Assembly of undivided India on April 1,1945. The Legislative Assembly voted in favour of the publication of the Bill for public opinion.

Meanwhile a proposal by Dr. A.M. Malik, the Minister for Health for opening some Medical Colleges which would teach Allopathic during the first four years and Homoeopathy in the final year was turned down by the homoeopaths. They had learnt a lesson from what had happened in U.S.A.

The Bill was not put to debate on the pertext that it was a Private Bill and the Government would place its own Bill before the House. In 1950 the Sind Medical Council put a ban on the use of the prefix 'Doctor' by any Homoeopath, which was eventually lifted under the public pressure. In 1951 the Government appointed a Health Committee of 7 members comprising of the top Government officials and other eminent homoeopaths of that time to submit their recommendations for the procedure for the Registration of Homoeopaths and to prepare the syllabus for the Homoeopathic Medical Colleges.

The Committee submitted its report in October 1961. Meanwhile, Shri Pir Ali Akbar Shah placed the Homoeopathic Practitioners' Bill in the Provincial Assembly of Sind in April 1951. Ultimately, after many years of toil and hard labour, the National Assembly .of Pakistan passed the `Unani, Ayurvedic and Homoeopathic Practitioner's Act,' which provided for the registration of practitioners and the framing of the syllabus for tlie Homoeopathic Colleges. Under the provisions of the Act'the 'Board of Homoeopathic System of Medicine', Pakistan was established in 1965. Apart from adopting the Code of Ethics for the homoeopathic practitioners of the country and approving the Pakistan 'Homoeopathic Pharmacopea'. The main functions of the Board are:

(a) to consider applications for recognition made by the institutions imparting or desiring to impart instructions in homoeopathic system of medicine ;

(b) to secure the maintenance of an adequate standard of efficiency in the recognised homoeopathic institutions;

(c) to make arrangements for the registration of duly qualified persons in accordance with the provisions of the Act; (d) to provide for Research in Homoeopathy, and

(e) to do such other acts and things as the Board may be empowered to do by the Act or the Rules.

The registration of the homoeopaths was done in 1967. In this process the lay practitioners practising at that time were registered on the basis of having atleast 10 years' full time practice and also after under going a test conducted by the Board of Homoeopathic System of Medicine. But from 1967 only those who qualify from the Homoeopathic Colleges are registered.

The Board of Homoeopathic System of Medicine is the supreme body of homoeopaths in the country. It is an autonomous body under the control of the Ministry of Health, Government of Pakistan. It consists of elected as well as nominated members. Elections are held every 3 years. It has an Honoray President and a full-time Secretary-cum-Registrar. At present there are about 14,100 Homoeopathic medical practitioners in Pakistan. Of them 300 are the members of the International Homoeopathic Medical League. In the whole country, there are seven recognised Homoeopathic Medical Colleges and Hospitals. These colleges receive a substantial sum of money from the Ministry of Health as grant-in-aid and about 200 homoeopaths are qualifying from these colleges every year with a four years D.H.M.S. diploma course.

In addition, over 7000 dispensaries have been set-up by the homoeopathic doctors (Private, Municipal Corporation, Government and other autonomous bodies) throughout the country.

As far Research work and its centres, Pakistan is having four Homoeopathic Research Centres at Islamabad and Karachi, The well-known homoeopathic manufacturing chemists here are about seven located at Karachi, Hyderabad, Lahore, Bhawalpir and Rawalpindi. The media of information comprise of eight homoeopathic magazines, journals and periodicals published from Lahore, Karachi, Hyderabad, Rawalpindi and Faisalabad As for associations, it presently numbers four: • All Pakistan Homoeopathic Association, Hyderbad. • Society of Homoeopaths, Lahore. • Homoeopathic Federation Pakistan, Karachi. • International Podiagric Association of Homoeopathic Medicine, Pakistan. In a few words it may be summarised that Homoeopathy is progressing well in Pakistan in its all round sphere and its future is safe in the hands of the Homoeopathic Practitioners of Pakistan.

Singapore

Singapore is a republic and independent country ruled by the peoples Action Party'. Here, though the Malay Language is the National Language, equal rights are rendered to other languages in all respects. Singapore is one of the important parts in South-East Aisa. Tourists come and go from all over the world. The population is approximately 17 lakhs. There are thousands of allopaths who are practising at Singapore. A large number of Chinese physicians known as Sin Sc are also practising. There are also Siddh, Ayuryedic, Unani and Homoeopathic

3. Only those who are sufficiently conversant with principles of Homoeopathic and have had considerable experience of its practice should be registered.

4. The other practitioners may be considered for listing and when listed allowed to continue practice for 5 years but not share in the privileges of registered homoeopathic medical practitioners.

5. Registered homoeopathic medical practitioners should have the same privileges as other registered medical practitioners.

6. 'Listed' parctitioners, after 5 years from the date of the compilation of the list, and all others, from the date of the compilation of the list, should be debarred from continuing, or commencing practice without registration.

7. The Council should have over all control of homoeopathic pharmacies, pharmaceutical concerns, etc.

8. The manufacture of homoeopathic drugs in Ceylon and the setting up of a Research Institute may be considered in due course.

9. Scholarships should be awarded for training pharmacists in U.S.A. and U.K. for training in research in homoeopathic institions abroad.

10. A college and hospital should be set up in the same block of land to train future homoeopathic medical practitioners :

11. The minimum qualification for entrance to the college should be the S.S.C. preferably with science subjects.

12. There should be two courses of training.

(a) A regular 4-year course for students those who pass the final examination being entitled to registration.

(b) A refresher course of one year for listed practitioners who would have to pass an examination, before being considered for registration.

13. Legislation should be introduced at an early date to control the practice and regulate the teaching of Homoeopathy in Ceylon. Due to the many requests of the Homoeopathic Association of Ceylon, a Bill providing for the establishment of Homoeopathy in Ceylon was presented in 1964 by the then Minister for Health, the Hon'ble Mr. E. L. Senanayke which was passed unanimously in the Parliament.

The Homoeopathic Act No.7 of 1970 was enacted in Parliament at the 5th Session 1969-70 which was defined as "An Act to provide for the establishment of a Homoeopathic Council which will be responisbie for carrying out the following objects, namely the promotion and encouragement of the Homoeopathic System of Medicine, the registration of homoeopathic practitioners, the recognition of Homoeopathic Institutions, the regulation and control of the importation, sale and dispensing of homoeopathic medicines, drugs and other preparations and to provide for matters connected therewith and incidental thereto". This Act was made legal on February 12, 1970, but unfortunately it was repelled by the next Government and could be implemented only in 1979 when the first Party came back in power.

Thereafter a Homoeopathic Council was established consisting of seven members appointed by the Minister of Health. The Council is fully responsible for registering practitioners, setting up of hospitals, beginning courses and raising funds. The Council has set up a Board of Examiners to examine all those homoeopaths wishing to get themselves registered as homoeopathic practitioners. The examinations shall be conducted by the Homoeopathic Medical Council. These fall into the following groups:

(i) Those who have practised for a period not less than 10 years but have no institutional qualification. They will be required to totality satisfy the Board of Examiners.

(ii) Those who have practised for a period of not less than 3 years. They are required to take a written examination. If they pass this, then they will be registered. On failing they will be allowed to be placed on a Provisional Register for a period of five years and then take another examination at the end of this period. If they still fail they will be removed from the Register.

(iii) Those who have practised for less than 3 years. They will be put on the Provisional Register and required to take the written examination as in (ii) above.

While there are many homoeopaths, at present, practising Homoeopathy in Sri Lanka, the number of institutionally qualified homoeopaths is about 20. From 1970-71 there was a Quarterly Journal brought out by the Ceylon Homoeopathic Medical Association, but due to lack of funds its publication was stopped. Since 1980 a new publication has been started which is entitled 'Health and Homoeopathy' published from 23, Dowson Road, Colombo 5.

Sweden

The Swedish Homoeopathic Federation was established in1845 by Doctor Med. Prof. P.J. Liedbeck, Upsala. But when the National Board of Health in the early 20th century attacked the homoeopathic doctors these members left the Federation and the new practitioners were laymen. In recent years Dr. Uno Lindskoug has striven to arouse an interest among his medical collagues for Homoeopathy. He has asked for imparting systematic homoeopathic education to the lay homoeopaths which should "comprise of anatomy, pathology, physiology, chemistry, hygiene, homoeopathic therapy, homoeopathic Materia Medica etc.

Dr. Lindskoug alongwith his medical colleagues, wants to have a body of competent homoeopaths in Sweden. But the opposition from the National Board of Health (Socialystyrelsen) is still great. The Federation have 90 members, but only 50 of them are active practitioners. This is briefly the condition and the development of Homoeopathy in Sweden. The Federation members are striving for education in the Universities to every man and woman in all disciplines, in Homoeopathy, too.

Switzerland

SwitzerIand's most famous homoeopathic physician is the word- renowned. Dr. Pierre Schmidt of Geneva. Because of his old age, he is no more practising fully. But once every month the 'Groupement Hahnemannien de Lyon' meets in his practice rooms for a full-day instruction course, which is given by his pupils under his auspices. Very active homoeopathic physicians are also Dr. Flury, Berne and Dr. Voegeli Pully, well-known even in surrounding countries, The homoeopathic physicians of Switzerland from the Swiss Society of Homoeopathic physicians with present membership of about 50 comprising of 42 physicians, 1 pharmacist, 2 Veterinary Surgeons and 3 candidates, A few of these physicians practise Pure Homoeopathy, the majority are interested in Homoeopathy, but have a mixed practice (Homoeopathy and Allopathy). They meet twice a year at Berne and hold discussions on the various subjects. The proceedings of the Society are published twice a year by its Secretary,

In addition, there exist 2 more homoeopathic lay organisations viz. Swiss Society for Homoeopathy, one at Berne and the other at Swich. These organisations are also contributing to the development of Homoponathy and make propaganda for the good cures achieved under homoeopathic treatment. There are 50 members of the International Homoeopathic Medical League from the whole of Switzerland.

United States of America

In America Homoeopathy was introduced by Dr. Hans Burch Gram, who was born in 1786 in Boston. He had studied the medicine in Denmark and became a Surgeon in NepoIeon's army and adopted Homoeopathy in: Germany from Hahnemann and his disciples. Later on, he returned to the United States and settled in New York, where he practised medicine. In 1825 he published `Geist der Homoeopath Ischen Heil - Lehr', and founded the colony of homoeopathic physicans in New York. He died in 1840.

At the same time Dr. Henry Detwiller, born in Basel, 1795, had studied medicine in Wurzburg and had familiarized himself with Hahnemann's philosophy. He came to Philadelphia in 1817and practised medicine, making the first homoeopathic prescription in Pennsylyania in 1828.

The homoeopathic colonies in the United States were supplied with homoeopathic literature and material by Dr. Stapf in Germany and Dr. Siegrist in Switzerland, whose names together with Ruckert, Jahr, Gravogl and Boenninghausen constituted the original core of Hahnemann teaching. Dr. Detwiller died in 1885, at the mature 'homoeopathic age of 90 years.

Now comes the Wesselhofts, from the Fromman Publishers in Jena, who were acquaintances of Goethe. The two brothers, William and Robert, became homoeopathic physicians and as member of the Burschenschatt liberty movement in Germany, had to leave the country. In 1827 William Wesselhoft came to America, practising first in Pennsylvania. Both brothers finally settled in Boston in 1835. They had equally prominent sons, Conrad and William Palmer Wesselhoft, who went through Harvard Medical School. Dr. Conrad Wesselhoft's translation in 1875 of the fifth edition of the 'Organon' into American English'was done in short sentences quite different from Dudgeon's had in contrast to Hahnemann's own style and phraseology.

The strongest promoter of early Homoeopathy in America was Dr. Constantine Hering. He was born on January 1,1800 in Oschatz near Dresden, studied medicine, and graduated at Wurzburg with the thesis : "The Old Man is the Perfect Man'.

Hering was converted to Homoeopathy when he read Hahnemann's books in order to prepare a condemnation of Homoeopathy. After six years in a Government post in Surinam, documented by Stap from the Archives for die Homyeopatische Heilkunit, he resigned from the civil service, and practised Homoeopathy in Paramaribo, where he discovered and published the important remedy Lachesis. In January 1833 he came to North America, and on Hahnemann's birthday in April of the same year, impressed the Philadelphia Hahnemann Society by his speech on : "A Concise View of the Rise and ore Prognosis of Homoeopathic Medicine", which was translated into English and became the second homoeopathic publication in America. Hering died in 1880 in Philadelphia.

The 'Homoeopathic Academy' was founded in 1833 in Allentown, Pennsylvania, and closed in 1836, the year in which the famous Hahnemann College was started in Philadelphia. The Amercian Institute of Homoeopathy was he founded in 1844 in Philadelphia. In 1905, a 'Hahnemann Monument' was erected on Scott Circle in Washington, D. C commemorating Hahnemann's 150th birthday. In early American Homoeopathy the German Homoeopathy literature was used. Naturally the translations of the British Physicians, Dudgeon, Wheeler and Richard Huges, including the 'Materia Medica Pura' and John H. Clarke's Dictionary of Materia Medica' were circulated. Also the translations from French homoeopaths such as Teste and Jousse into English were widely used. Hering came out with 10 volumes of his, `Guiding Symptoms' in 1879, complemented by the Repertory of his son-in-law, Dr. Knerr in Philadelphia in 1879, and Dr. Farrington's 'Condensed Materia Medica', and by Gross's 'Comparative Materia Medica' based on Hering's 'Guiding Symptoms'. Dr. Charles Hempel of Philadelphia in (1811-1879) translated Hahnemann's 'Chronic diseases' in 1845 and the 'Leaser Writings' in 1851, into good English, He also translated Jahr and Ruckert, edited by Radde, New York and later by Boericke and Taffel, Philadelphia.

To name a few more authors who attained great reputations Dr. James Tyler Kent (1849-1917) with his 'Reperlory' which was revised several times, translated into numerous languages and is to be found on every homoeopath's desk. Also worth mentioning are Kent's 'Philosophy of Homoeopathy' and his doctrine of high potency. He taught first at the Chicago Hering Homoeopathic College and later at the Hahnemann College of Chicago. The other eminent authors are Dr. E.B. Nash with his small book called 'Leaders in Homoeopathty on different subjects; Dr. H.C. Alien, born in 1836 in Canada, was well known author for his book 'Keynote Characteristics' and was a teacher at the Hering College in, Chicago; Dr. Wood vas a homoeopathic gynaecologist, also a teacher at the Chicago Homoeopathic College.

At the Homoeopathic College of the Pacific, several authors and professors of Homoeopathy taught. Among them are : Dr. Samuel Lilienthal in 1890, his son Dr. James Lilienthal in 1907, Dr. Thomas McGavac, Dr. H.R. Arndt from Southern California, Dr. James W. Ward whose book 'Sensactions as if is still used, and Dr. William Boericke whose 'Pocket Manual of the Homoeopathic Materia Medica', is handled by the majority of the homoeopathic physicians of the world. Dr. Boericke had also the honour of , translating the 6th edition of 'Organan' into English. Among them was also Dr. Timothy Field Alien, a professor and author in New York, who is very famous for his Encyclopeidea of twelve volumes and the huge 'Handbook of the Materia Medica'.

In America Homoeopathy and its practice is officially recognised. The Government of the United States established the Homoeopathic Pharmacopoeia, as legally official in 1936 besides the General Pharmacopoeia. In 1966, the Homoeopathic Pharmacopoeia has been incorporated in the Medicare legislation which provides a system of State Health Insurance for the entire population. The representative national organisation of the homoeopathic physicians is the "American Institute of Homoeopthy", which was founded in 1844 and is the oldest national medical organisation of the country. Its present membership is 101 and all of the members are the members of the International Homoeopathic Medical League.

As for the homoeopathic education, it is taught on a post-graduate level through a yearly post-graduate course which is conducted by the'Natinal Center for Instruction in Homoeopathy and Homoeopatherapeutics' and by seminars conducted by the American Academy of Homoeopatherapeutics, a division of the American Institute of Homoeopathy. The American Academy of Homoeopatherapeutics is the Committee of the American Institute which plans, sponsors and provides programmes for physicians and dentists, consisting of seminars, books and other publications.

The Council of Homoeotherapeutic Standards is the Committee of the Institute which establishes educational qualification for practitioners in this speciality, guidelines and standards for the clinical practice of Homoeotherapeutics and requirements for continuing education. It serves as a 'Peer Review Committee in Homoeotherapeutics and is available to consult with other Peer Review Committees in the various specialities when the practice of Homoeotherapeutics is involved.

The American Board of Homoeotherapeutics has established criteria for education and essential qualifications for physicians and dentists who wish to apply for diplomate status in this speciality. The 'American Board of Homoeotherapatics', founded in 1922, under the leadership of Julia Minerva Green, M.D., devotes its activities to raising and safeguarding funds which it disburses to individuals and orgnisations whose work is supportive of Homoeopath and Homoeotherapeutics, Gifts, bequests and legacies it receives are classified as tax deductible to the donor under the international Revenue Service Code. The 'Hahnemann Theraputic Society' is a non-profit corporation composed of representatives of various organizations concerned primarily with Homoeotherapeutics and assists in coordinating the activities of these groups.

The Third Century Committee is composed of representatives of the Amercian Foundation for Homoeopathy, the American Institute of Homoeopathy, the American Association of Homoeopathic Pharmacists and the National Center for Homoeopathy. Its function is to coordinate the plans and programmes of activities for those organizations to avoid duplication and assure efficient and effective execution of the programmes.

The 'National Centre for Homoeopathy' incorporated in 1975, as an outgrowth of the original American Foundation for Homoeopathy is concerned with direct operational activities on behalf of Homoeopathy and Homoeotherapeutics. Its operational divisions include : Publication?, Research, Instructions and Continuing Education, Laymen's activities, and Administration. It serves as the central office for the above-listed organizations and maintains an extensive homoeopathic library.

In addition to the above leading organisations, there are numerous "Homoeo-Study Groups" in various parts of the country. In the whole country there are 7 homoeopathic drug manufacturers and 15 homoeopathic pharmacists.

Regular homoeopathic publications are : 1. 'The Journal of the American lntstitute of Homoeopathy', 7297-H, Lee Highway, Falls Church, Virgina 22402. 2. 'The Hahnemannian' 3. 'The Pacific Coast it Bulletin'. 4. 'The Ohio State News Letter'; the laymen's Journal. 5. 'The Layman Speaks'. 6. 'Homoeopathic Heartbeat', National Center for Homoeopathy, 6231, Lessbrug Pike, Suite 506, Falls Church, Va. 22044. 7. 'The Homoeopathic Digest', Box 667, Ossining, N.4.) 10562 (USA). There are 15 homoeopathic lay organisations. The Pan American Homoeopathic Congress is a professional organisation of homoeopathic physicians of North and South America, Each Organisation is holding atleast one yearly meeting with a varied programme covering the whole field of Homoeopathy, its practice and and homoeopathic research.

U.S.S.R.

In an article in the 'Soviet Land' (Oct. 1964 Issue) Dr. V. Varshavsky, head of the Medical Department of Moscow Central Homoeopalhic Polyclinic, writes: 'The Homoeopathic method of treatment is knawn in Russia since 1823. In their time such progressive Russian scientists as N. Pirogov and V. Butierov acknowledged the efficiency of this method. Professor Pirogov utilised homoeopathic remedies in his medical practice and introduced a number of homoeopathic medical preparations into his scientific works.

After the Revolution of 1917 the Association of Homoeopathists was organised in Moscow. In 1928 it was organised in to the 'All Russian Society' with branches in many cities.

The newly opened homoeopathic polyclinics were included in the general new work of the country's public health service. Homoeopathy in Russia is regarded as-one of the methods of modern therapy which expands the possiblities of therapeutic influence upon the human organism.

Today, there are homoecipathic medical institutions in many Soviet cities. They treat patients for all discases. For instance, the Central Homoeopathic Polyclinic has Therapeutics, Surgical, Neuropathological, Gynaecological, Otorhinolaryngological Opthalmological, Dermatolagical and Urological Departments and consulting rooms.