INDEX

S.NO. RESEARCH AUTHOR
1 HOMEOPATHIC MEDICINES ARE NANO-PARTICLES AFFECTING THE METABOLISM Dr. Shakti Kumar Prabhuji (Gorakhpur)
2 USES OF MODERN TECHNOLOGY IN HOMOEOPATHIC PRESCRIPTION Dr. H.N. Singh, Lucknow
3 ELECTRO-TRIDOSHA-GRAPH/GRAM (E.T.G.) Dr. Desh BandhuBajpai, Kanpur
4 Peptic Ulcer Disease Dr. Preeti Sharma
5 ARE STEROIDS USED IN HOMEOPATHIC MEDICINES? Dr. Deepak Sharma
6 होमियोपैथी का रहस्य Through (I.I.T Mumbai)
7 ज्योतिषीय होम्योपैथी Dr. M.R. Sharma, Auraiya
8 चाँद पर होमियोपैथी ट्रीटमेंट की कारगर Through (Amer Ujala News Paper Agra)

Homeopathic Medicines are nano-particles affecting the metabolism

Dr. Shakti Kumar Prabhuji (Gorakhpur)

Abbreviations :

ATPase : Adenosine Tri-Phosphate, NMR : Nuclear Magnetic Resonance, P-type: Proton Type Keywords : Homoeopathy, Mechanism of action, Enzyme co-factor concept, Molecular mechanism concept, Nano-particle concept, concept of Memory of water

Abstract

Even after more than two hundred thirty years following its inception, the mechanism of action of homeopathic drugs could not be explained. Furthermore, the two basic tenets of homeopathy.

Similia Similibus curantur (like cures like) and

1. Introduction :

Following the inception of the concept of homoeopathy, more than two hundred thirty years ago, by Dr. samuel Hahnemann (1755-1843) the mechanism of action of these drugs could not be explained (Heidelberg, 1824; Hahnemann, 1842) and that has been the fundamental reason why such an advanced system of medication could not get proper recognition. Furthermore, the two basic tenets of homoeopathy - Similia similibus curantur (like cures like) and memory of water; have been challenged periodically by scientists and non-believers of homeopathy. Thus this became a challenging scientific field for researchers to demonstrate the efficiency of this extremely diluted form of medicine in a scientific manner in controlled clinical trials and to explore its mode of action within the domain of science.

It was only the early twentieth century period when majority of the biological concepts were memory of water; have been challenged periodically by scientists and non-believrs of homeopathy. The mechanism of homeopathic drug action categorized under - Enzyme co-factor concept, Molecular mechanism concept, Nano-particle concept together with the concept of Memory of water has been reviewed to assess the feasibility of each of them on practical grounds. Although each concept has its scientific base, the enzyme co-factor concept, nano-particle concept and the concept of memory of water have definite scientific basis to relay upon. Each concept has certain shortcomings, however, in light of similia similibus curantur the use of poisonous materials as medicine, given in Nano-particle concept, has its practical feasibility. Furthermore, this concept will have way in advancing extensive work in the field of homoeopathic nanotechnology in future.

Citation :

Prabhuji S.K., 2014. Homoeopathic medicines are nano-particles affecting the metabolism. The Journal of Ethnobiology and Traditional Medicine. Photon 121, 725-732. Properly understood, and therefore, has rightly been considered as the period of renaissance in Medical Physiology and Human Metabolism. However, the most surprising part is that even with the advent of 21st Century, the mode of action of homoeopathic drugs is still unknown and the 18th Century concepts are still prevailing.

1.1 Similia Similibus Curantur :

Homoeopathy is a medical practice aiming at strengthening the natural homeostasis of the body and stimulating the immune system. Homeopathy acts following the similarity principle; that means that the symptomatic patient is treated with a medicine containing a substance causing similar symptoms in a healthy person. For example onion can be the cause of a watery discharge of the nose and eyes. A medicine prepared from onion, namely Allium cepa, can treat patients who have these symptoms during a coryza or allergic rhinitis accompanied by irritating watery discharge from the nose.

1.2 The Controversy :

The Editorial in Lancet(2005) and extended a definite opinion that in homeopathic drugs no medicine could be defected at potencies above potency C-12 exceeding Avagadro’s limit. As an example of this position, we can consider a publication in The Lancet (Shang et al., 2005), in fact a scientific fraud (Ludtke and Rutten, 2008; Rutten and Stolper, 2008), but such publication based on manipulation of facts would be sufficient to justify the placebo theory and rejection of further research into homeopathy. By redoing this statistical exercise, it was possible to confirm the fraud and to deduce that the conclusions of his publication must have been written before looking at the facts. Tracing the movement of the ‘molecular imprint’ through receptors or nerve cells in the absence of the original ‘drug molecule’ or pinpointing the mechanism (s) and pathway(s) of action of the drug after it is administered on the tongue of a patient or an experimental animal is simply impracticable. The use of radio isotope in this regard can also be of little help as the ultra-dilution will effectively throw out all radio isotopic original drug molecules. This make it clearly much more challenging a task than studying the course of action of an orthodox medicine, say allopathic drugs. The mechanism and pathways of action of the macromolecules they contain can be traced inside the animal body. Rutten et al. (2012) stated that Homeopathy is controversial and holly debated.

2. Objective of Research :

The objective of the present work is, firstly, to analyse the feasibility of earlier given concepts and secondly, justification of my ‘nano-particle concept” in the light of potentization process and use of highly poisonous meterials as homeopathic medicines.

3. Enzyme Co-Factor Concept :

As is well known, the metabolic activities of living systems are controlled by the biochemical catalysts-the Enzymes, having specific substrates to act upon. Probably, these are the vital chemicals for which Dr. Hahnemann had used the term “vital force” or “Vital principles”. Whenever, the complete enzyme or the holoenzyme is required for action, the apoenzyme gets attached with the coenzymes or cat-ions. In case of non-availability of non-proteinaceous part, enzyme action is interrupted causing there by an abnormal metabolic state or the diseased condition. Homeopathic drugs provide the missing non-proteinaceous part of the active enzyme and restore the nomalcy. Muscle cramps are primarily caused by accumulation of Pyruvic acid (Guyton and Hall, 1996), Normally, the enzyme-phosphopyruvate Hydratase that contains Mg as non-proteinaceous part assimilitates Pyruvic acid and relieves the cramp. In case its activity is affected due to lack of Mg. ion, this may be restored with the use of Magnesia Phosphorica.

The Neuro-Muscular System (the fundamental part of the body systems) involves change of electrical potential along the membrane. During the disorders of this system, Rhus Toxicodendron (that contains sodium), Causticum (that contains calcium) are used to ractify them. Now, the questionis how the process goes on? In the axon terminal several mitochondria supply energy for the syntehsis of excitatory transmitter-the Acetacholine. Three major cellular functions including the protein synthesis (apoenzyme) get energy (in the form of ATP) from mitochondria. At neuro-muclular junction Acetacholine are released into the synaptic space. Receptors are large protein complexes (having 2-alpha, 1-beta, 1-delta and 1-gamma units) which penetrate all the way through the membrane to form a tubular channel. The channels remain constricted until two acetacholine molecules attach respectively to the alpha-subunit of proteins which causes a conformational change that open the channels. The opened Acetacholine channels allow cat-ions (Na+, K+ and Ca++) to move easily through them whereas the an-ions (Cl-) do not pass through because of strong negative charges at the mouth of the channel. This creates a local potential change at the muscle fibre membrane resulting in muscule contraction (Guyton and Hall, 1996). Normally, Na+-, K+- and Ca++-. AtPases play important roles during this activity. In case the ATPases exhibit weaker role, mostly due to less availaibility of an-ion activators, the Acetacholinesterase enzyme activates which is attached mainly to the basal lamina - the spongy layer of fine connective tissue in muscle layer and destroys the Acetacholine attached to the alpha-molecules of the protein, resulting into constriction or closure of the chanel. Therefore, the passage of cat-ions (Na+, K+ and Ca++) is restricted causing - “No Muscle Action” or inability of neuro-muscular junction to transmit signals from neurons to the muscle fibres - the paraplegic condition. Under such a bondition three basic homeopathic drugs viz., Rhus Toxicodendron, Causticum and Balladonna have been found to be highly effective. Analyses have shown the presence of Na, K and Ca in them respectively. The deficit of cat-ions, in them respectively. The deficit of cat-ions, which inactivates the ATPasses and activates the Acetacholin esterase, is reslored by these medicines. The active ATPases, then, function as Anti-Acetacholinesterase causing re-attachment of Acetacholine to the alpha-molecules of the protein and the normally returns (Prabhuji, 2005).

3.1. Na+, K+ and Ca+ Pump :

The generation of electrochemical gradients by Na+, K+ -ATPase for sodium-potassium ion exchange across the plasma membrane during each cycle of ATP hydrolysis is of vital significance to animal cells. Several of the residues forming the cavity for rubidium/potassium occlusion in the Na+, K+ =ATPase are homologous to the binding calcium in the Ca2+ -ATPase of sarco(endo) plasmic reticulum (Preben Morth et al., 2007). The sarco (endo) plasmic, reticulum Ca2+ - Atpase, a P-type ATPase, has a critical role in muscle function and metabolism. In a study of nucleotide binding and cation transport of Ca2+ -ATPase it has been found that the phosphorylation of the enzyme triggers onset of a conformational change that leads to the opening of a luminal exit. This mechanism explains how P-type ATPases are able to form the sleep electrochemical gradients required for key functions in the eukaryotic cells (Olesen et al. 2007).

3.2 Mithiridates effect

: Sukul (1990) demonstrated increase in serotonin and dopamine metabolites in mouse hypothalamus and increase in firing rates in specific neurones following oral administration of a homeopathic drug and opined that homeopathic drugs act through autonomous nervous system. Fisher (1992) opined that the mechanism of action of the homeoapthic drugscould have some relationship with the Mithridates effect, but the did not elaborate on the mechanism involved in such effect.

4. Molecular Mechanism Concept

4.1. Molecular Imprint Hypothesis :

Davenas et al. (1988) advocated a ‘molecular imprint’ hypothesis of the ‘vehicle’ of potentized homeopathic drug which made positive changes in lgE modulations and exocytosis of mast cells, however, this paper later became controversial. Banik and Khuda Buksh (1999) reported positive modulations of cytogenetical and haematological effects by ultra-lowdoses of Ginseng in whole-body X-irradiated mice. Similaranti-clastogenic action of potentized Arnica Montana, Ruta Graveolens, Hypericum and X-Ray had also been reported earlier in mice (Kuda-Baksh at al, 1982; Khuda-Bakhsh, 1986; Khuda-Bakhsh and Maity, 1990). Similarly, the genotoxic ill-effects of ultrasonic soundwaves in mice could also be ameliorated by the oral administration of potentized Arnika Montana (Chakrabarti et al. 2001). Subsequently, an extensive investigation on the efficacy of oral administration of pootentized Arsenic Alb (30 C and 200 C) in reducing arsenic-induced genotoxicity in mice has been made by taking into consideration not only various cytogenetical protocols like chromosome aberrations, mitotic index, micronuclei testing, sperm head anomaly, but also by other biochemical protocols like proten profiles, arsenic depositions in tissues, enzymatic studies (like lipid peroxidase, acid and alkaline phosphastase, glutathione, glutamate oxalo acetate transaminase and glutamate pyruvate transaminase activities), DNA and RNA contents, histopathological sutdies and pointed out the application of these studies in cambating human sufferings in arsenic contaminated rural areas of India and some other countries where arsenic contamination has assumed alarming proportions (Mitra et al., 1998, 1999; Datta et al., 1999 a, b; Kundu et al., 2000 a, b).

4.2 Hormesis Hypothesis :

The term ‘hormesis’ was proposed by Southam and Ehrlich (1943) to describe ‘a stimulatory effect of sub-inhibitory concentrations of any toxic substance on an organism’. Several researchers (Stebbing, 1982; Weigant et al, 1997; Van Wijk and Weigant, 1994, 1998) tried to explain the mechanism of action due to ‘hormesis’ effect based on their experimentations. In fact, these researchers made valuable contributions to proteotoxicity, and demonstrated formation of abnormal protein molecules as aresult of exposure of cells to toxic substances like cadmiumor arsenite, an important event leading to disordered cellular physiological processes, loss of functionality, cellular damage and cell death. They have further shown that in case of cell damage, the protector protein synthesis is stepped up by exposure of cells to an application of a low dose of damaging condition (i.e. arseniteor cadmium). The replacement of protector proteins starts with the activation of protector protein gave promotos on DNA by binding of specific DNa-binding factors, called heat shock-transcription factors (HSFs), on their appropriate DNA sites. The binding of a promotor constitutes a signal that triggers transfer of information from DNA into mRNA, eventually leading to new protector proteins.

5. Nano-Particle Concept :

If we consider that the opinion expressed in the Editorial of Lancet (2005), that no medicine could be detected in so-called homeopathic drug, is of significance; how the impaired condition has been observed to be made under control by these remedies and the health is restored in absnence of any medicine (homeopathic drug) there? The other side of the coin is the presence of the medicine in a non-detectable amount and in non-detectable particle-size. It is notable that at the nano-scales, forces such as gravity or inertia do not play much of a role, but, Van der Waal’s forces, electron resistance and magnetism are the more important govering forces (Bhat, 2003). At sol nanoparticles-size level the metals like gold exhibits its exceptional stability (Pal et al., 2003) and it, being least reactive, becomes highly reactive or in other words, there is total reversal in the properties (Sastry et al., 2003). This indicates towards certain peculiar properties of the molecules at the nano-scale. Firstly, the reactivity of the molecules is appreciably enhanced having exceptional stability and secondly, with the reactivity the properties are also changed completely in reserve direction, i.e., a biologically toxic material becomes non-toxic and vice-versa. I feel these characteristics may very well explain the mechanism of action of homeopathic drugs.

5.1. Potentization and nano-particle :

The homeopathic medicines are prepared by potentization phenomenon, during which, the macro-molecules are transformed into nano-molecules within the medium (so called-vehicle of the drug). At lower potencies, the molecular size shifts to 10-9 range and later, at higher potencies it further shifts to 10-12 onwards. I fear this has been the fundamental reason why no homoeopathic medicines could be detected as reported in the Editorial of Lancet (2005). The homoeopathic medicines originate from six individual lines; the pure chemicals, inorganic or organic; plant tissues as a whole or part there from; animal tissues, as a whole or part there from; alkaloids produced by plant tissues; toxins or venomous substances produced by animals; and the mesodes. During the proparatory pressess, i.e., potentization phenomenon, the drug materials together with the vehicle medium has been successively shaken vigorously to transform the macromolecular state into, which has been considered as the concentrateds state of the medicine, it remains it macromolecular state. At mother tincture level, which has been considered as the concentrated state of the medicine, it remains in macromolecular state. During the preparation of gradually increasing potencies of the medicine, the mother tincture has subsequently been diluted with the vehicle medium (alcohol in liquid or lactose in powder) and the potentization phenomenon repeated. In such a different concentration concept where efficacy of the medication increases with the decrease in the amount of medicine in the vehicle medium, the highest potencies like one-millinth / ten-millionth and hundred millionth contain only the one-millionth / ten millionth and hundred-millionth part of medicine in one part of the vehicle medium.

In other words :

Efficiency of drug - - molecules of medicine....... increasing order ...................... (1) It may sound ridiculous considering the concepts prevailing in other systems of medication. When we consider the reactivity of molecules at nano-scale we find : Reactivity - - molecules.........increasing order........................(2)

Therfore, considering the concept of molecules at nano-scale and homeopathic drug action together (both the conditions as above) the situation may very convincingly be explained. At marchomolecular level, i.e. lower potencies of the medicine act in ionic state with a bit slower action rate; however, at successively higher potencies the rate of action becomes gradually faster due to the transformation of molecules on successive higher nano-scale (Prabhuji, 2012). A few such important examples of homeopathic drugs are :

1. Strychnosnux-vomica is a poisonous herb causing severe stomach-ache and diarrhoea. Following potentization, it becomes a very effective homeopathic medicine to control severe stomach-ache and food poisoning.

2. Arsenic is highly toxic white coloured inorganic metal causing metabolic changes and tissue degeneration. Following potentization, it becomes a very effective homeopathic medicine to restore normal metabolic state and control tissue degeneration.

3. Cobra venom is highly haemotoxic and neurotoxc causing severe haemorrhage and death. Following potentization, it (Lachesis) becomes highly potent homeopathic remedy to control haemorrhage and haemo-toxic state of the body.

4. Potassium Cyanide is the World’s fastest acting and top ranking poison. Following potentization, Kali cyanatum becomes a potent homeopathic medication used to control highly toxic state of cancer.

A nanoparticulate perspective of homoeopathic drugs has been given by Chikrimane (2010) and this hypothesis was confirmed by Chirumbolo (2011), Prabhuji (2012) and Upadhyay and Nayak (2012).

6. Memory of Water :

The initial studies, conducted by Ross (1997) and power (1999),investigated the nature of Q potencies. These researchers acknowledged that the theories also the molecular organization in solutions existed, but they refrained from conclusively interpreting the resultsin terms of those theories. Their research lead to Cason (2002) investigating the influence of the frequency of the NMR spectrometer on results obtained. Drvies (2001) and Malan (2002 investigated the role of dilution on the physico-chemical structure of the homeopathic solutions, showing that information storage does take place in the solution, but that different dilution methods results in different solutions, even when the theoretical dilution level is equal. Malan’s (2002) mention of dilution level and succession opened the door for investiation of the effect of various potentization methods. Hofmeyr (2004), Lyell (2004) and Botha (2005) each investigated different variables that may be introduced during the manufacturing process, particularly looking at the naumber of successions and the effect of trituration. Erasmus (2004) took this one step further by investigating the mechanics of the succession process. These researchers interpreted their results based on the theories of Resch and Gutmann (1987), Anagnostatos and Vithoulkas (1991).and Anagnostatos (1994). This body of knowledge has inspired Allsopp (2009) to look into the effect of energy transfer into the solution - whether it is imperative that the energy is imprinted mechanically by hand production of the remedies, or if it can equally be achieved through electromagnetic means. in comparing the studies, it is evident that both trituration and serial dilution change the physicochemical properties of the solvent to produce distinct medicines.

6.1 Solutions and Electromagnetism :

Medicine Nobel Prize winner Prof. Lus Montagnier (2009), does not hesitate now to support the idea of information transmitted through water solvent. In Strasburg, during the Congress on “Homeopathy, a chance for Europe” in May 2010, he concluded; “Since 2005 we discovered that plasma from patients suffering of chronic degenerative diseases can emit low frequencies electromagnetic signals at high dilutions in water corresponding to the same frequencies of bacteria’s DNA. These findings are confirming the idea of Water Memory and previous results obtained with, as example, the basophil activation model.” The highlights are of the present work include : (i) at low potencies the homeopathic medicines work on ‘Enzyme co-factor concept’; (ii) at higher potencies the medicines follow the machanism on ‘nano-particle concept; (iii) ‘nano-particle concept’ is supported by the process of potentization and use of poisonous matrials as medicines. The only limitation was to prove that nono-particle nature of the medicine at high potencies, which may be proved by using Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). I hope further work on these lines with the use of AFM will definitely provide valuable evidences supporting the ‘nano-particle concept’ of homeopathic drug action.

Conclusions :

Following the inception of the conception of homeopathy by Dr. Samuel Hahnemann, more than two hundred thirty years ago, the mechanism of action of these drugs could not be explained. The two basic tenets of homeopathy - Similia similibus curantur (like cures like) and memory of water, have been challenged priodically by scientists and non-believers of homeopathy. The mechanism of homeopathic drug action categorized under - enzyme co-factor concept, Molecular mechanism concept, Nano-particle concept together with the concept of memory of water has been reviewed. The enzyme co-factor concept, Nano-particle concept and the concept of Memory of water have definite scientific basic to rely upon. With conclusive evidences these concepts have been discussed, however, experimental evidence by using AFM will definitely confirm this which was the main limitation.

Acknowledgements :

Thanks are due to Sri P.N. Srivastava, Secreteary and Manager and D.. Shiraz A Wajih, Principal, M. G. Post Graduate College, Gorakhpur (India) for facilities to work and encouragements. I am also thankful to Dr. G. P. Rao, Principal Scientist, Divison of Plant Pathology, Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi (India) for extending every support in various ways.

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Abstract

Even after more than two hundred thirty years following its inception, the mechanism of action of homeopathic drugs could not be explained. Furthermore, the two basic tenets of homeopathy.

Similia Similibus curantur (like cures like) and

1. Introduction :

Following the inception of the concept of homoeopathy, more than two hundred thirty years ago, by Dr. samuel Hahnemann (1755-1843) the mechanism of action of these drugs could not be explained (Heidelberg, 1824; Hahnemann, 1842) and that has been the fundamental reason why such an advanced system of medication could not get proper recognition. Furthermore, the two basic tenets of homoeopathy - Similia similibus curantur (like cures like) and memory of water; have been challenged periodically by scientists and non-believers of homeopathy. Thus this became a challenging scientific field for researchers to demonstrate the efficiency of this extremely diluted form of medicine in a scientific manner in controlled clinical trials and to explore its mode of action within the domain of science.

It was only the early twentieth century period when majority of the biological concepts were memory of water; have been challenged periodically by scientists and non-believrs of homeopathy. The mechanism of homeopathic drug action categorized under - Enzyme co-factor concept, Molecular mechanism concept, Nano-particle concept together with the concept of Memory of water has been reviewed to assess the feasibility of each of them on practical grounds. Although each concept has its scientific base, the enzyme co-factor concept, nano-particle concept and the concept of memory of water have definite scientific basis to relay upon. Each concept has certain shortcomings, however, in light of similia similibus curantur the use of poisonous materials as medicine, given in Nano-particle concept, has its practical feasibility. Furthermore, this concept will have way in advancing extensive work in the field of homoeopathic nanotechnology in future.

Citation :

Prabhuji S.K., 2014. Homoeopathic medicines are nano-particles affecting the metabolism. The Journal of Ethnobiology and Traditional Medicine. Photon 121, 725-732. Properly understood, and therefore, has rightly been considered as the period of renaissance in Medical Physiology and Human Metabolism. However, the most surprising part is that even with the advent of 21st Century, the mode of action of homoeopathic drugs is still unknown and the 18th Century concepts are still prevailing.

1.1 Similia Similibus Curantur :

Homoeopathy is a medical practice aiming at strengthening the natural homeostasis of the body and stimulating the immune system. Homeopathy acts following the similarity principle; that means that the symptomatic patient is treated with a medicine containing a substance causing similar symptoms in a healthy person. For example onion can be the cause of a watery discharge of the nose and eyes. A medicine prepared from onion, namely Allium cepa, can treat patients who have these symptoms during a coryza or allergic rhinitis accompanied by irritating watery discharge from the nose.

1.2 The Controversy :

The Editorial in Lancet(2005) and extended a definite opinion that in homeopathic drugs no medicine could be defected at potencies above potency C-12 exceeding Avagadro’s limit. As an example of this position, we can consider a publication in The Lancet (Shang et al., 2005), in fact a scientific fraud (Ludtke and Rutten, 2008; Rutten and Stolper, 2008), but such publication based on manipulation of facts would be sufficient to justify the placebo theory and rejection of further research into homeopathy. By redoing this statistical exercise, it was possible to confirm the fraud and to deduce that the conclusions of his publication must have been written before looking at the facts. Tracing the movement of the ‘molecular imprint’ through receptors or nerve cells in the absence of the original ‘drug molecule’ or pinpointing the mechanism (s) and pathway(s) of action of the drug after it is administered on the tongue of a patient or an experimental animal is simply impracticable. The use of radio isotope in this regard can also be of little help as the ultra-dilution will effectively throw out all radio isotopic original drug molecules. This make it clearly much more challenging a task than studying the course of action of an orthodox medicine, say allopathic drugs. The mechanism and pathways of action of the macromolecules they contain can be traced inside the animal body. Rutten et al. (2012) stated that Homeopathy is controversial and holly debated.

2. Objective of Research :

The objective of the present work is, firstly, to analyse the feasibility of earlier given concepts and secondly, justification of my ‘nano-particle concept” in the light of potentization process and use of highly poisonous meterials as homeopathic medicines.

3. Enzyme Co-Factor Concept :

As is well known, the metabolic activities of living systems are controlled by the biochemical catalysts-the Enzymes, having specific substrates to act upon. Probably, these are the vital chemicals for which Dr. Hahnemann had used the term “vital force” or “Vital principles”. Whenever, the complete enzyme or the holoenzyme is required for action, the apoenzyme gets attached with the coenzymes or cat-ions. In case of non-availability of non-proteinaceous part, enzyme action is interrupted causing there by an abnormal metabolic state or the diseased condition. Homeopathic drugs provide the missing non-proteinaceous part of the active enzyme and restore the nomalcy. Muscle cramps are primarily caused by accumulation of Pyruvic acid (Guyton and Hall, 1996), Normally, the enzyme-phosphopyruvate Hydratase that contains Mg as non-proteinaceous part assimilitates Pyruvic acid and relieves the cramp. In case its activity is affected due to lack of Mg. ion, this may be restored with the use of Magnesia Phosphorica.

The Neuro-Muscular System (the fundamental part of the body systems) involves change of electrical potential along the membrane. During the disorders of this system, Rhus Toxicodendron (that contains sodium), Causticum (that contains calcium) are used to ractify them. Now, the questionis how the process goes on? In the axon terminal several mitochondria supply energy for the syntehsis of excitatory transmitter-the Acetacholine. Three major cellular functions including the protein synthesis (apoenzyme) get energy (in the form of ATP) from mitochondria. At neuro-muclular junction Acetacholine are released into the synaptic space. Receptors are large protein complexes (having 2-alpha, 1-beta, 1-delta and 1-gamma units) which penetrate all the way through the membrane to form a tubular channel. The channels remain constricted until two acetacholine molecules attach respectively to the alpha-subunit of proteins which causes a conformational change that open the channels. The opened Acetacholine channels allow cat-ions (Na+, K+ and Ca++) to move easily through them whereas the an-ions (Cl-) do not pass through because of strong negative charges at the mouth of the channel. This creates a local potential change at the muscle fibre membrane resulting in muscule contraction (Guyton and Hall, 1996). Normally, Na+-, K+- and Ca++-. AtPases play important roles during this activity. In case the ATPases exhibit weaker role, mostly due to less availaibility of an-ion activators, the Acetacholinesterase enzyme activates which is attached mainly to the basal lamina - the spongy layer of fine connective tissue in muscle layer and destroys the Acetacholine attached to the alpha-molecules of the protein, resulting into constriction or closure of the chanel. Therefore, the passage of cat-ions (Na+, K+ and Ca++) is restricted causing - “No Muscle Action” or inability of neuro-muscular junction to transmit signals from neurons to the muscle fibres - the paraplegic condition. Under such a bondition three basic homeopathic drugs viz., Rhus Toxicodendron, Causticum and Balladonna have been found to be highly effective. Analyses have shown the presence of Na, K and Ca in them respectively. The deficit of cat-ions, in them respectively. The deficit of cat-ions, which inactivates the ATPasses and activates the Acetacholin esterase, is reslored by these medicines. The active ATPases, then, function as Anti-Acetacholinesterase causing re-attachment of Acetacholine to the alpha-molecules of the protein and the normally returns (Prabhuji, 2005).

3.1. Na+, K+ and Ca+ Pump :

The generation of electrochemical gradients by Na+, K+ -ATPase for sodium-potassium ion exchange across the plasma membrane during each cycle of ATP hydrolysis is of vital significance to animal cells. Several of the residues forming the cavity for rubidium/potassium occlusion in the Na+, K+ =ATPase are homologous to the binding calcium in the Ca2+ -ATPase of sarco(endo) plasmic reticulum (Preben Morth et al., 2007). The sarco (endo) plasmic, reticulum Ca2+ - Atpase, a P-type ATPase, has a critical role in muscle function and metabolism. In a study of nucleotide binding and cation transport of Ca2+ -ATPase it has been found that the phosphorylation of the enzyme triggers onset of a conformational change that leads to the opening of a luminal exit. This mechanism explains how P-type ATPases are able to form the sleep electrochemical gradients required for key functions in the eukaryotic cells (Olesen et al. 2007).

3.2 Mithiridates effect

: Sukul (1990) demonstrated increase in serotonin and dopamine metabolites in mouse hypothalamus and increase in firing rates in specific neurones following oral administration of a homeopathic drug and opined that homeopathic drugs act through autonomous nervous system. Fisher (1992) opined that the mechanism of action of the homeoapthic drugscould have some relationship with the Mithridates effect, but the did not elaborate on the mechanism involved in such effect.

4. Molecular Mechanism Concept

4.1. Molecular Imprint Hypothesis :

Davenas et al. (1988) advocated a ‘molecular imprint’ hypothesis of the ‘vehicle’ of potentized homeopathic drug which made positive changes in lgE modulations and exocytosis of mast cells, however, this paper later became controversial. Banik and Khuda Buksh (1999) reported positive modulations of cytogenetical and haematological effects by ultra-lowdoses of Ginseng in whole-body X-irradiated mice. Similaranti-clastogenic action of potentized Arnica Montana, Ruta Graveolens, Hypericum and X-Ray had also been reported earlier in mice (Kuda-Baksh at al, 1982; Khuda-Bakhsh, 1986; Khuda-Bakhsh and Maity, 1990). Similarly, the genotoxic ill-effects of ultrasonic soundwaves in mice could also be ameliorated by the oral administration of potentized Arnika Montana (Chakrabarti et al. 2001). Subsequently, an extensive investigation on the efficacy of oral administration of pootentized Arsenic Alb (30 C and 200 C) in reducing arsenic-induced genotoxicity in mice has been made by taking into consideration not only various cytogenetical protocols like chromosome aberrations, mitotic index, micronuclei testing, sperm head anomaly, but also by other biochemical protocols like proten profiles, arsenic depositions in tissues, enzymatic studies (like lipid peroxidase, acid and alkaline phosphastase, glutathione, glutamate oxalo acetate transaminase and glutamate pyruvate transaminase activities), DNA and RNA contents, histopathological sutdies and pointed out the application of these studies in cambating human sufferings in arsenic contaminated rural areas of India and some other countries where arsenic contamination has assumed alarming proportions (Mitra et al., 1998, 1999; Datta et al., 1999 a, b; Kundu et al., 2000 a, b).

4.2 Hormesis Hypothesis :

The term ‘hormesis’ was proposed by Southam and Ehrlich (1943) to describe ‘a stimulatory effect of sub-inhibitory concentrations of any toxic substance on an organism’. Several researchers (Stebbing, 1982; Weigant et al, 1997; Van Wijk and Weigant, 1994, 1998) tried to explain the mechanism of action due to ‘hormesis’ effect based on their experimentations. In fact, these researchers made valuable contributions to proteotoxicity, and demonstrated formation of abnormal protein molecules as aresult of exposure of cells to toxic substances like cadmiumor arsenite, an important event leading to disordered cellular physiological processes, loss of functionality, cellular damage and cell death. They have further shown that in case of cell damage, the protector protein synthesis is stepped up by exposure of cells to an application of a low dose of damaging condition (i.e. arseniteor cadmium). The replacement of protector proteins starts with the activation of protector protein gave promotos on DNA by binding of specific DNa-binding factors, called heat shock-transcription factors (HSFs), on their appropriate DNA sites. The binding of a promotor constitutes a signal that triggers transfer of information from DNA into mRNA, eventually leading to new protector proteins.

5. Nano-Particle Concept :

If we consider that the opinion expressed in the Editorial of Lancet (2005), that no medicine could be detected in so-called homeopathic drug, is of significance; how the impaired condition has been observed to be made under control by these remedies and the health is restored in absnence of any medicine (homeopathic drug) there? The other side of the coin is the presence of the medicine in a non-detectable amount and in non-detectable particle-size. It is notable that at the nano-scales, forces such as gravity or inertia do not play much of a role, but, Van der Waal’s forces, electron resistance and magnetism are the more important govering forces (Bhat, 2003). At sol nanoparticles-size level the metals like gold exhibits its exceptional stability (Pal et al., 2003) and it, being least reactive, becomes highly reactive or in other words, there is total reversal in the properties (Sastry et al., 2003). This indicates towards certain peculiar properties of the molecules at the nano-scale. Firstly, the reactivity of the molecules is appreciably enhanced having exceptional stability and secondly, with the reactivity the properties are also changed completely in reserve direction, i.e., a biologically toxic material becomes non-toxic and vice-versa. I feel these characteristics may very well explain the mechanism of action of homeopathic drugs.

5.1. Potentization and nano-particle :

The homeopathic medicines are prepared by potentization phenomenon, during which, the macro-molecules are transformed into nano-molecules within the medium (so called-vehicle of the drug). At lower potencies, the molecular size shifts to 10-9 range and later, at higher potencies it further shifts to 10-12 onwards. I fear this has been the fundamental reason why no homoeopathic medicines could be detected as reported in the Editorial of Lancet (2005). The homoeopathic medicines originate from six individual lines; the pure chemicals, inorganic or organic; plant tissues as a whole or part there from; animal tissues, as a whole or part there from; alkaloids produced by plant tissues; toxins or venomous substances produced by animals; and the mesodes. During the proparatory pressess, i.e., potentization phenomenon, the drug materials together with the vehicle medium has been successively shaken vigorously to transform the macromolecular state into, which has been considered as the concentrateds state of the medicine, it remains it macromolecular state. At mother tincture level, which has been considered as the concentrated state of the medicine, it remains in macromolecular state. During the preparation of gradually increasing potencies of the medicine, the mother tincture has subsequently been diluted with the vehicle medium (alcohol in liquid or lactose in powder) and the potentization phenomenon repeated. In such a different concentration concept where efficacy of the medication increases with the decrease in the amount of medicine in the vehicle medium, the highest potencies like one-millinth / ten-millionth and hundred millionth contain only the one-millionth / ten millionth and hundred-millionth part of medicine in one part of the vehicle medium.

In other words :

Efficiency of drug - - molecules of medicine....... increasing order ...................... (1) It may sound ridiculous considering the concepts prevailing in other systems of medication. When we consider the reactivity of molecules at nano-scale we find : Reactivity - - molecules.........increasing order........................(2)

Therfore, considering the concept of molecules at nano-scale and homeopathic drug action together (both the conditions as above) the situation may very convincingly be explained. At marchomolecular level, i.e. lower potencies of the medicine act in ionic state with a bit slower action rate; however, at successively higher potencies the rate of action becomes gradually faster due to the transformation of molecules on successive higher nano-scale (Prabhuji, 2012). A few such important examples of homeopathic drugs are :

1. Strychnosnux-vomica is a poisonous herb causing severe stomach-ache and diarrhoea. Following potentization, it becomes a very effective homeopathic medicine to control severe stomach-ache and food poisoning.

2. Arsenic is highly toxic white coloured inorganic metal causing metabolic changes and tissue degeneration. Following potentization, it becomes a very effective homeopathic medicine to restore normal metabolic state and control tissue degeneration.

3. Cobra venom is highly haemotoxic and neurotoxc causing severe haemorrhage and death. Following potentization, it (Lachesis) becomes highly potent homeopathic remedy to control haemorrhage and haemo-toxic state of the body.

4. Potassium Cyanide is the World’s fastest acting and top ranking poison. Following potentization, Kali cyanatum becomes a potent homeopathic medication used to control highly toxic state of cancer.

A nanoparticulate perspective of homoeopathic drugs has been given by Chikrimane (2010) and this hypothesis was confirmed by Chirumbolo (2011), Prabhuji (2012) and Upadhyay and Nayak (2012).

6. Memory of Water :

The initial studies, conducted by Ross (1997) and power (1999),investigated the nature of Q potencies. These researchers acknowledged that the theories also the molecular organization in solutions existed, but they refrained from conclusively interpreting the resultsin terms of those theories. Their research lead to Cason (2002) investigating the influence of the frequency of the NMR spectrometer on results obtained. Drvies (2001) and Malan (2002 investigated the role of dilution on the physico-chemical structure of the homeopathic solutions, showing that information storage does take place in the solution, but that different dilution methods results in different solutions, even when the theoretical dilution level is equal. Malan’s (2002) mention of dilution level and succession opened the door for investiation of the effect of various potentization methods. Hofmeyr (2004), Lyell (2004) and Botha (2005) each investigated different variables that may be introduced during the manufacturing process, particularly looking at the naumber of successions and the effect of trituration. Erasmus (2004) took this one step further by investigating the mechanics of the succession process. These researchers interpreted their results based on the theories of Resch and Gutmann (1987), Anagnostatos and Vithoulkas (1991).and Anagnostatos (1994). This body of knowledge has inspired Allsopp (2009) to look into the effect of energy transfer into the solution - whether it is imperative that the energy is imprinted mechanically by hand production of the remedies, or if it can equally be achieved through electromagnetic means. in comparing the studies, it is evident that both trituration and serial dilution change the physicochemical properties of the solvent to produce distinct medicines.

6.1 Solutions and Electromagnetism :

Medicine Nobel Prize winner Prof. Lus Montagnier (2009), does not hesitate now to support the idea of information transmitted through water solvent. In Strasburg, during the Congress on “Homeopathy, a chance for Europe” in May 2010, he concluded; “Since 2005 we discovered that plasma from patients suffering of chronic degenerative diseases can emit low frequencies electromagnetic signals at high dilutions in water corresponding to the same frequencies of bacteria’s DNA. These findings are confirming the idea of Water Memory and previous results obtained with, as example, the basophil activation model.” The highlights are of the present work include : (i) at low potencies the homeopathic medicines work on ‘Enzyme co-factor concept’; (ii) at higher potencies the medicines follow the machanism on ‘nano-particle concept; (iii) ‘nano-particle concept’ is supported by the process of potentization and use of poisonous matrials as medicines. The only limitation was to prove that nono-particle nature of the medicine at high potencies, which may be proved by using Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). I hope further work on these lines with the use of AFM will definitely provide valuable evidences supporting the ‘nano-particle concept’ of homeopathic drug action.

Conclusions :

Following the inception of the conception of homeopathy by Dr. Samuel Hahnemann, more than two hundred thirty years ago, the mechanism of action of these drugs could not be explained. The two basic tenets of homeopathy - Similia similibus curantur (like cures like) and memory of water, have been challenged priodically by scientists and non-believers of homeopathy. The mechanism of homeopathic drug action categorized under - enzyme co-factor concept, Molecular mechanism concept, Nano-particle concept together with the concept of memory of water has been reviewed. The enzyme co-factor concept, Nano-particle concept and the concept of Memory of water have definite scientific basic to rely upon. With conclusive evidences these concepts have been discussed, however, experimental evidence by using AFM will definitely confirm this which was the main limitation.

Acknowledgements :

Thanks are due to Sri P.N. Srivastava, Secreteary and Manager and D.. Shiraz A Wajih, Principal, M. G. Post Graduate College, Gorakhpur (India) for facilities to work and encouragements. I am also thankful to Dr. G. P. Rao, Principal Scientist, Divison of Plant Pathology, Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi (India) for extending every support in various ways.

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Uses of Modern Technology in Homoeopathic prescription

D.R. H.N. Singh LKO

I. What is Modern Technology : biochemical, computer, R.P. Patel’s autovisual, endocrinological, histopathological, X-ray, USG, ECG, Echocardiography, CT scanning, MRI, EMG, Angiography etc. these technology are used in investigations which helps us to establish the diagnosis.
II. Uses and Importance :
To gain the confidence of the Patient -
1. In majority of cases the most common question which is being asked from the physician these days would you mind Dr. What is wrong with me if the doctors says that your vital force is deranged or tells, that you were suffering from Nux Vomica diseases, this will not satisfied the patient at all. On the contrary it will doubt the doctors ability. If the doctor who understands the psychology of the patient would try to label the disease clinically and later on try to confirm the diagnosis based on the investigations, such an approach on the part of the physician make the patient feel secure and safe.
2. Investigations help us to know the obstacles to recovery and every physician must know how to remove.
3. Investigations help us in giving directions about the diet decision in the treatment i.e. to stop the food immediately on notieing typhoid fever more protein & vitamin in tuberculosis
patient and fatty diet in hepatitis patient. In heart disease and COPD smoking is prohibitedand in liver cirrhosis and CA stomach alcohol is restricted.
4. Investigations are necessary to know the prognosis of the case which plays an important role to the physician.
5. Through investigations and diagnosis the physician advices to accessory measures e.g. extension exercise and hard bed is useful for patients of cervical spondylosis. Sponging hot fomentations etc. every physician must combine physiotherapy and other accessory management with medicament to fasten the recovery.
6. Investigations help us to take a preventive meausres against the spread of diseases. It also helps to advise quarentine leave for those who attended the infected patients.
7. Investigations/diagnosis helps to differentiate between a case of poisoning from the natural disease.
8. Investigations like Blood sugar in a case of NIDDM and IDDM, albumin and casts in the urine in a case of nephritis, haemoglobin and RBC count in a case of anemia, WBC count in a case of inflammation or sepsis or leukaemia, BP reading in a case of hypertension, ECG and echocardiography of heart disease X-ray report in case of tuberculosis, calculus. Peptic ulcer biopsy report in a case of malignant tumour. Investigations and diagnosis are necessary collecting statistical data in clinical research. Primary investigations after intake of the drug, on the production of symptoms is essential for a proper drug proving. Without investigations and absence of data of case WHO is not giving importance ot Homoeopathy which is dangerous for we homoeopaths.
9. Without the help of investigations we can not diagnose or decide that the case can be managed at home or patient should be hospitalized the clock observation in acute MI, coma state require hospitalization.
10. Investigations and diagnosis help to know the scope and limit of Homoeopathy in the treatment of the diseases. It helps in knowing to what is curable in the disease in ankylosing spondylitis, a suitable medicine will relieve the inflammation but fail to break the adhesions. Bronchiectasis and emphysema are irreversible conditions and hence medicines prescribed on totality of the symptoms will make the patient feel comfortable and raise the resistance of the patient, so the treatment has to be palliative. A women with infantile uterus can’t have menses nor she can have child. A man having azoospermia can’t have a child from his wife.
11. Investigations and diagnosis helps to understands the seat of the disease the extent of pathology, the course and prognosis of the disease. Rheumatism licks the joints and bites the heart i.e. it produces valvular affections.
If proper treatment is not followed metastasis is also seen in malignancy. The disappearance of pain should not be considered as a favourable action of the drug given to the patient.
III. My observation : I would like to present a case of my OPD.Case Report RK/13 YRS /MALE CHILD/OPD 4885 Chief complaints :
1. Recurrent coryza x 2 yrs
2. Cough with dyspnoea x 2 yrs
3. Cough productive agg. night during sleep sputum thick, pale, easily expectorated. Amelioration - sitting up. Associated features - chest pain, hoarseness


Past History : Sore throat with pain in the joints.
Physical Examination : Throat appears normal with absence of inflammation in the throat with hoarsensss of voice.
Dyspnoea on exertion : Suspicion of cardiac involvement
On auscultation : Systolic murmur in the mitral area, weak Ist heart sound.
Investigations : Routine hemogram, ASO titre, ECG shows left atrial hypertrophy, left ventricular hypertrophy.


Treatment : Spigelia 30 TDS x 7 days Adonis vernalis Q 20 drops TDS x 7 days
After one Week : Improvement in patients condition
Treatment Advised : Spigelia 30 TDS x 7 days Adonis vernalis Q 20 drops TDS x 7 day. Later on Spigelia was given in higher potencies, after two months patient was free of all the conditions.
ECG : With in Normal limits


Case was cured

IV. Discussion :

1. Dr. R. P. Patel says that I found that stumbling block is analysis & evaluation of the symptoms after case taking. Always some misconception misunderstanding misinterpretation have come in our way for the success. Late Dr. P. Shankaran a good friend of Dr. R. P. Patel gave one beautiful example in his book. Analysis and evaluation of the symptoms. He classified the symptoms in to two groups :
A. Pathognomonic Symptoms : Fever, pain chest, cough, blood streaked sputum, reduced pulse/respiration, haemoptysis, opacities in the lung and polymorpho- nuclear leucocytosis.
B. Non pathognomonic symptoms : Symptoms of organic disease after getting wet, restlessnes worse after midnight, triangular red tip of the tongue, pain in the body (from motion beginning to ) & continued motion.
Without investigations the diagnosis of pneumonia can not be pointed out. Innumerable diagnostic terms have been used in the Homoeopathic materia medica and repertory i.e. Tabes mesenterica in abdomen page no. 603, osteosarcoma of tibia page no. 1215, cerebral hemorrhage page no. 108, uraemia under deep sleep page no. 1235; without investigations it can’t be possible.
2. Selection of potency : Second most difficult thing that a homoeopath faces is the selection of the potency. To select the potency the first thing is to be considered is the seat of the disease. It is customary that low potency is prescribed when the organic changes are prominent and the high potency when the functional changes are prominent. It is Impossible to access about the organic changes with its extent and progress without modern technology.
3. Organopathies : Dr Burnett based his prescription on local organ and tissue affinity where the paucity of mental, physical general and characteristic symptoms are not available in the case taking or if met these symptoms are incomplete.
4. Dr Hughes used to teach and prescribe on the pathological or diagnostic symptoms, without investigations it is not possible. Dr. Robin Murphy says that I have merged both type of practice i.e. classical & clinical, if you prescribe only on one type you are a half homoeopath, learn to prescribe according to case to case.


Conclusion :

At the end I conclude that investigations is not the guiding star for a homoeopathic physician in selecting a remedy but it is an integral part of scientific management of Homoeopathic practice.


ELECTRO-TRIDOSHA-GRAPH/GRAM (E.T.G.)

Dr. Desh BandhuBajpai, Kanpur

Invented and Developed by:

ABSTRACT AYURVED

The Indian system of Medicine, is 5000 (five thousands) years old medical science. The whole Ayurveda is based on the Tridosha, Dhatu, Mal, Agni and Oaj Theory which are factually known as Maulik Siddhant. Diagnosis of Tridosha-agni-dhatu-mal-oaj etc. and diagnosis of diseases or disease conditions are based solely on the radial pulse examination conventionally and the treatment and management of the sick individual is totally dependent on the radial pulse reading conceived by the Ayurvedic practitioners. To quantity TRIDOSHA, only radial pulse examination is conventional to assess the status of Tridosha in human body, depending upon the knowledge of the Ayurvedic practitioners he. How Vaidya/Ayurvedic clinician quantities and conceives Tridosha himself and unto what extent? This is not explanatory by any means in physical proofs, as EVIDENCE-BASED-MEDICINE terms, like example of X-ray, Imaging pictures, Ultra-sound, MRI, Pathological investigations etc.

For the first time, Electro-Tridosha-Gram/Graph technology is invented with the help of Electo-Tridosha-Graph Machine . It is believed that this technology will improve the scientistic approach in MAULIK SIDDHANT of Ayurveda, the INDIAN SYSTEM OF MEDICINE, more accurate, more logical in its philosophy, examination, evaluation of drugs/remedy/medicine, monitoring and treatment. Today the Tridosha, the Each Tridosha’s five kinds, the Sapta Dhatu, the Mala, Mootra and the Sved, Agni, Oaj and Total Oaj and other AYURVEDIC MAULIK SIDDHANT can be quantity with their presence in human body in their respective intensity on paper, which is showing physical existence of these theory before eyes in form of paper report, say “evidence based medicine” by ELECTRO-TRIDOSHA-GRAPH/GRAM technology. Now Ayurveda have a scientific tool and technology at present time, which is capable and effective to prove scientifically the Tridosha and Sapta Dhatu (Dosha-Dooshya), Malam-moolam philosophy and other Maulik Siddhant. Today, it is believed that with the help of ETG technology, Ayurveda will enter into new era of research, which has innumerable possibilities to explore the truth of Ayurveda in evidence form, earlier said by the sages since five thousands years ago, in philosophy, in logic, in Siddhant etc. This technology will change the concept of Tridosha etc. in diagnosis and treatment more accurate, more logical and most scientific. The technology will open new doors for research in Ayurveda, which have been never explored earlier.


SUMMARY OF THE RESEARCH WORK


BACKGROUND

How the idea was incepted and why the need for such a device has been felt ?

IDEA INCEPTION

For the first time, the idea of ELECTRO-TRIDOSH-GRAM/GRAPH was that conceived by me, when few years back, one day, I was recording Electro-Cardio-Gram of my one patient. The Radial Pulse examination is knon as NARI PARIKSHAN in AYURVED, the Indian System of Medicine. Thus NARI PARIKSHAN done by the practitioners of Ayurvedic Science, Status of TRIDOSH, which are VATA, PITTA, KAPHA in single and in combinations, are quanlified in human body. Tridosha is an important and essential part of the basic root and foundation of Ayurveda, on which whole
Ayurvedic science, its philosophy and concept is built. Without Tridosha, Ayurveda-science is nowhere stands.
In fact I was in search of a mechanical means for Radial Pulse recording. Nari-examination is directed in many classical books of Ayurveda. It is directed that both hand’s radial pulse should be examined. I have seen many patients that they have only one hand or in some cases both hands are absent or amputees. In these instances, radial pulse reading is impossible to assess the Tridosha intensities; therefore treatment based on Tridosha is difficult in these cases.
Since last over 12 years, Electro Trodosh Grapgh Machine (Which is modified) is being used to quantify and evaluate Tridosha etc. Intensity from my outdoor patients. The selection of sectors/site for placement of sucking electrode for obtaining tracings from Right Vata, Left Vata, Right Pitta, Left Pitta, Right Kaphha and Left Kaphha and sites for other leads are established accordingly.

Basic Principles

This is known fact that when the heart contracts, electric currents are produced and distributed throughout the body to the skin, just like the spreading waves of a pool of water into which a stone has been dropped. Two electrodes can be applied to any parts of the body to lead the heart current to a recording galvanometer. The obtained trace record on heat sensitive paper is called an Electro-tridosha-gram.


Basic Electrophysiology

The changes in the electrical potential with each heart beat can be understood by considering the electrical behavior of a singel cell. The surface of the resting cell will be electrically positive compared with the interior of the cell which is electrically negative. A cell in this condition is said to be in the polarized state and the exterior and interior of the cell can be compared to the two poles of a battery. When the cell is stimulated, the difference in the electrical state between the negative interior and positive exterior of the cell is temporarily abolished and the cell is said to be ‘depolarized’. When the effect of excitation has passed off and the cell has returned to its former resting state, the positive charge outside and negative charge inside are restored, the cell is ‘repolarised’.
When an excitatory [depolarization] process flows towards a unipolar electrode, the galvanometer will record a positive or upward deflection and when it flows away from the electrode, a negative or downward deflection.

Normal resting muscles :

No difference in electrical potential exists, therefore if the two ends are connected to a galvanometer no current will flow-no deflection.

Depolarization

If one end of the muscles stripe is stimulated, the surface of the muscles is no longer positive whereas the surface of the cell at the resting portion is still positive, an electric current will therefore flow from the resting to the stimulated part causing the needle of the galvanometer to deflect. When the excitation has activated the whole strip, all cells are in the excited or depolarized state. Consequently there is no difference in electrical potential between any points on the surface of the stripe. No current will therefore flow through the external circuit and the galvanometer needle will return to the zero position.

Repolarization

When the effect of stimulation has subsides, the strip returns to its resting state, recovery starting at the point which was first stimulated. At this movement the cells of the recovered portion are again in the polarized state and their surface is electrically positive in relation to the surface of the still excited cells. The differences in the electrical potential are therefore of the opposite direction from those during the spread of excitation. The current will therefore flow from the already recovered to the still excited portion of the muscle strip.
When subsequently the whole strip has recovered all the cells are again in the resting [polarized] state. The electrical potential at all point being the same, no current will flow and the needle will return to zero.
Thus the excitation and subsequent recovery of the muscles stripe have given rise to two electrical currents or defections of opposite directions. The current of the repolarization [during recovery] are weaker and extend over a longer period of the time than those of the depolarization [during excitation]. Applying this to the electrical changes produced by the heart beats the same fundamental principle holds but with some modifications. This is because the hearty consists of a multitude of intercommunicating muscle fibers and had four chambers which are activated in sequence more complicated than the simple spread of excitation through a muscles strip.


Physiological Basis

The important characteristics of human heart include excitability, rhythmicity, conductivity, contractibility and distensibility. Excitability and contractility are the inherent properties of each cardiac cell. The excitation wave passes from cell to cell once stimulated at any point and the whole mass of cardiac cells behave as a syncitium. This is due to ionic flux of Potassium across the cell membrane maintained by Sodium + Potassium + ATPase whereby intracellular potassium is 30 times more than the exterior. Following excitation, the depolarization wave starts. If a microelectrode is placed inside a muscle fiber, it records an extreme rapid phase of depolarization lasting 1-2-msec and then becomes positive in comparison to exterior by 15-30 mV over a period of 6-15 msec. Thereafter there is a plateau of 100 msec followed by a Repolarization period. Upstroke of this action potential coincides with R wave of ECG, the plateau period with R-T segment and the repolarization with T wave. Changes in concentration of Potassium and calcium and to less extent sodium have profound effect on excitability and contractility of heart. Manesium and stontium have some effect only when calcium concentration is low. Deporarization wave in myocardial cells and cells of Purkinjee system is brought about by fast inward movement of sodium whereas in pacemaker cells of SA node and in proximal region of A-V node it is brought about by slow inward movement of calcium. Only under abnormal conditions, the fast inward current by sodium chanel is ofren inhibited and deporization is brough about by calcium channel.


Electrophysiology

Electrophysiology is the study of the electrical properties of biological cells and tissues. It involves measurement of the voltages changes or electric current flow on a wide variety of scales from single ion channel proteins to whole tissues like the heart. In neuroscience, it includes measurements of the electrical activity of neurons, and particularly action potential activity.


Action Potential

An action potential is a wave of electrical discharges that travels along the membrane of a cell. Action potential carries fast internal massages between the tissues, and is an essential feature of animal life. They can be created by many types of body cells, but are used most extensively by the nervous system to send massages between nerve cells and from nerve cells to other body tissues such as muscles and glands. Action potential is an essential carrier of the neural code. Their properties may constrain the sizes of evolving anatomies and enable centralized control and coordination of organs and tissues.

Signal Transduction

In biology, signal transduction is any process by which a cell converts one kind of signal or stimulus into another. Process referred to as signal transduction often involve a sequence of biochemical reactions inside the cells, which are carried out by enzymes and linked through second messengers. Such processes take place in as little time as a millisecond or as long as a few seconds. Slower processes are rarely referred to as signal transduction. In many transduction processes, an increasing number of enzymes and other molecules become engaged in the events that proceed from the initial stimulus. In such cases the chain of steps is referred to as a “signaling cascade” or a “second messenger pathway” and often results in a small stimulus eliciting a large response.


Membrane Potential

Membrane potential [or transmembrane potential or transmembrane potential difference or transmembrane potential gradient, is the electrical potential difference [voltage] across a cell’s plasma membrane. In membrane biophysics it is sometime used interchangeably with cell potential, but is applicable to any lipid bilayer or membrane. Hence every organelle and every membranous compartment [such as a synthetic vesicle] has a transmembrane potential [although the size of this potential may be zero.


Electrolyte

An electrolyte is a substance that dissociate into free ions when dissolved [or molten], to produce an electrically conductive medium. Because they generally consist of ions in solution, electrolytes are also known as ionic solutions. They are sometimes referred to in abbreviated jargon or lytes. Electrolytes generally exist as acids, bases or salts. Furthermore, some gases may act as electrolytes under conditions of high temperature or low pressure. An electrolyte may be described as concentrated if it has a high concentration of ions or dilute a low concentraion of ions. If a high proportion of the dissolved solute dissociates to form free ions, the solution is strong; if most of the dissolved solute does not dissociate, the solution is weak. The properties of electrolytes may be exploited via electrolysis to extract constituent elements and compound contained with in the solution
3. Unique features of the innovation
1. Ayurvedic physician observes Tridosha by touching Radial pulse. It is solely depend upon the knowledge, experience and mental capability of Physician, to which level and unto what extent, the physician estimate the status of the Tridosha level of a sick person. It is very difficult for another Ayurvedic physician to know and experience similar and equal estimation of Tridosha, Dhatu, Mal, Agni, Oaj etc. observed by the earlier Ayurvedic physician. By using ETG technology, Dosha-Dhatu-Mal-Agni-Oaj is recorded on heat sensitive white paper strip. Earlier the recording was performed on the ECG papers. But due to graphical print on the paper tracings minute details can not be well observed. Therefore white sensitive paper is used for recording. Now Tridosha etc. Quantification is possible by any Ayurvedic Physician, who has knowledge of interpreting ETG.
2. Ayurvedic physician can estimate and measure the level of Tridosha i.e. Vata, Pitta and Kaphha or its combination, Sapta Dhatu and Tridosha affected Sapta Dhatu etc. in sick person and can conclude, which Dosha-Dhatu-Mal-Agni etc is normal, below normal or above normal. By this the physician can choose Branghan or Shaman treatment accordingly to Dosha etc.
3. Apart from Tridosha, ETG can help in diagnosis of various human body disorders and diseases conditions, which no other modern diagnosis gadgets could detects. By this technology physician can observe which part of body is damaging, the tendency of disease.
4. When patient recovers health, significant changes are observed in ETG after treatment. Ayurvedic physician can monitor patient health improvement and progess time to time and evaluate his treatment’s effects.

5. ETG is differed to ECG. ECG is for the diagnosis of cardiac problems only, while ETG is for diagnosis of Tridosha, Sapta-Dhatus, Mal and whole body scanning etc. The lead system, heat sensitive paper is totally changed and only a part of the ECG machine is used.
6. Treatment can be ascertained after analysis of Vata five kinds, Pitta five kinds, Kaphha five kinds, because ETG analysis gives which Dosha is Normal, Less normal, minimum or above normal or maximum. The intensity of Dosha, Dosha kinds, Sapta Dhatus and Mal etc thus shown, helps the clinician to make a plane for treatment.
7. Most of the Tridosha-kinds have no proper medication for particular area i.e. for Kaphha kinds Shleshman, Tarpan, Kledan, Snehan, Avalamban have no particular medicine for the treatment purposes specifically. No special medicine has been developed for the specific Tridosha, Sapta Dhatu and Mal disorders. With this technology medicine can be sorted and categorized for the particular and special nature of diseases or ailments.
8. Effects of medicine, herbs, minerals, animal products, prepared medicine which have been characterized with their specific uses, narrated classically in Ayurveda Ethics can be examined and evaluated by this technology successfully.


Scope of utilization


1. The scope of ELECTRO-TRIDOSHA-GRAM Technology is very brilliant at present and in Future. No-other technology is in existence to quantify the TRIDOSHA status on paper. This is for the first time, the Tridosha as a whole, each five kinds of Tridosha humors, Sapta Dhatu, Agni, Mal and Oaj are quantified according to their intensities persisting in human body. The intensities of the Doshas can be shown in their presence, percentages and in graphical forms. Dosha-Dhatu-Agni-Mal-Oaj etc are shown and produced in report form.
2. This technology will open a new gateway of the evaluation of the Ayurveda Tridosha, Dhatus, Mal and the Ayurvedic Drugs, Herbs, Mineral and other medicines. The effects of medicine in human body can be assessed by this HI-TECH technology
3. The diagnosis of several disease conditions, which are by no other ways possible to detect, is now possible by this technology, because it scans electrically whole body organs. After scanning by this technique, the sick parts can be observed or the sectors, where normal or abnormal tracings are found, detect the sick areas.
4. Ayurvedic graduates can do their Post-graduate in this subject and they can open their investigation centre to help the clinician by obtaining reports on Tridosha etc. Before start of Ayurvedic treatmen, During treatment, before PANCHAKARMA and after panchakarma the ETG report will show the progess of the treatment.
5. During research work on this technology, I have founded many unusual, peculiar, uncommon, rare, strange waves in the recorded tracings, which are yet to be analyzed. Very importantly, it is suggested that electrical behavior of the Astronauts should be observed in space shuttle and in space station during their stay in space.
6. The technology is equally useful for all Doctors and Physicians belongs to any method of clinical practices i.e. Modern western medicines, Unani, Siddha, Homoeopathy, Nature-cure, Yoga, Acupuncture, Acupressure, Physiotherapy, Magnet therapy, Aromatherapy, Tibetan medicine, Chines Medicine, Herbal Treatment, Korean medicine etc.
7. Those who will adopt this technology, they will find more ways of its use, which are unseen in future. But this is a prime fact that Ayurveda science will be benefitted much more.
8. Doctors and students of Ayurveda should brought forward to study the technique, to experience the concept, to develop technology and to do reseach in MAULIK SIDDHANT, HERBAL-MINERAL-ANIMAL DRAVYA GUN, TESTING OF AYURVEDIC MEDICINES AND REMEDIES, EFFECTS OF PANCHAKARMA etc in human body.



SCHEMATIC PRESENTATION OF ELECTRO-TRIDOSHA-GRAM/GRAPH TECHNOLOGY


Electro-Cardio-Gram Precautions before recording
MACHINE Changes in lead system especially for ETG
Records Tracing 15 selected sites of human body and 06 DO leads
Tracings pasted on According to their order paper of the recording of sites
Observation Scanned Normal tracings Abnormal
Evaluation on Format Waves Pattern
Date Analysis Optional- According to Modern Western Medicine
According to Ayurveda Tridosha etc & Rog-nidan Pulse features
According to Ayurveda Tridosha etc & Rog-nidan Pulse features


Vatta Pitta Kapaha
Sapta Dhatu Ras, Rakta, Maans, Med, Asthi, Majja, Shukra
Mal Purish, Mootra, Swed
Oaj Total Oaj Strength Diagnosis of diseases
Rog Nidan Physiological basis
Metabolic Basis
Mental Basis

Peptic Ulcer Disease

Dr. Preeti Sharma

Dr. Pradeep Kumar


INTRODUCTION

What is Peptic Ulcer Disease

The term generally refers to spectrum of disorders that include gastric ulcer, pyloric channel ulcer, duodenal ulcer and post-operative ulcers at or near the site of surgical anastomosis. Peptic ulcer may be characterized physiologically as a consequence of the inability of the localized areas of the stomach and duodenum to withstand the digestive action of acid and gastric juice thereby exposing the underlying layers of the gut wall to the acid reduction and the proteolytic enzyme pepsin. Generally in gastric ulcers, the output of hydrochloric acid is normal or low, but its corrosive effects presumably surpass the dimished resistance of the mucosa while in duodenal ulcers, the secretion of hydrochloric acid is excessive, two or four fold greater than normal, and ils digestive capacity exceeds the apparently normal resistance of the duodenal mucosa. The stomach defends itself from these digestive fluids, acid and pepsin, in several ways. One way is by producing mucous, a lubricant like coating that shields stomach tissues. Another way is by producing a chemical called bicarbonate. The chemical neutralizes and breaks down the digestive fluid into substances less harmful to stomach tissues. Finally, blood circulation to the stomach lining, cell renewal and cell repair also help protect the stomach. What causes peptic ulcer is not a well understood phenomenon and for many years the main medical treatment has been aimed at reducing acid production, based on the hope the neutralizing gastric acid will reduce the efficacy of pepsin, and so allow ulcer to heal. More recent studies have shown a relationship between amicroaerophilic bacterium H.pylori. which appears- to lie beneath the mucus membrane of the stomach wall and peptic ulcer.


Scope of the Review

Present article is a systemic review, compiled to bring forth, the current information on the various aspects of disease including its epidemiology, diagnosis and treatment etc. Given a comprehensive account, it is an outcome of the complication of researches done by various workers in different areas of peptic ulcer, help has been taken from a number of standard books. Recent journals and research and review papers with modern concept of the disease incorporated, greater emphasis on various ways of treatment especially on proton pump inhibitors has been given, it is a sincere effort done to present this article in a way providing an overview of the disease updating our knowledge.


HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE

Looking back at history, peptic ulcer was generally unrecognized as a cause of symptoms/complications or death until the early 19th century. Despite sporadic case report beginning in late 18th century, peptic ulcer did not become widely appreciated until early 20th century. The first 6 decades saw the dominance of surgery in the treatment of peptic ulcer. With the introduction of acid suppressive drugs like H-2 blockers in 1970s. the treatment of disease was revolutionized. By nineteen eighties, the advent of Helicobacter pylori brought about dramatic twist and possibly the cure.


BACKGROUND RATIONALE

Peptic ulcer is one of the important medical problem of our time. It affects a large number of people who are otherwise relatively fit. Peptic ulcer is the most common disease of gastrointestinal tract and it is estimated that approximately 10-20% adult male population in western countries will experience this disease at some time in their lives. It produces considerable illness and pain, resulting in great economic loss to the patients and their communities. There are a number of problems in assessing the prevalence of peptic ulcer. In. particular, many ulcers are asymptomatic and the accurate diagnosis of duodenal ulcer by radiometric method is difficult. Despite these dificulties, a number of methods have been used to measure the prevalence of peptic ulcer in the community: such methods have included postmortem studies, the use of the incidence of perforation as an index, the number of prescription for histamine receptor antagonists and more recently endoscopic survey. In U.K., a number of studies have indicated that prevalence of peptic ulcers in the population is of the order of 6-13% for men and 2-5% for women between the age of 15 to 64. In United State, the incidences of peptic ulcers are approximately 10%. The proportion of duodenal to gastric ulcer is 4:1 Each year ulcers affect about 4 million people. About 6000 people die of ulcer related complications, More than 40 thousand people have surgery because of persistent symptoms or problem from ulcers.


CAUSES OF PEPTIC ULCER

Numerous are factors blamed in the pathogenesis of the disease. Many of these factors may be acquired during life. although some of these may already be predetermined. Historically stomach acid has been the most common factor blamed. No acid — No ulcer is an old axiom, which may be questionable in the present time. As a group, patient with duodenal ulcer have high acid secretion. Increased acid secretion causes changes in the wall of duodenum, setting the stage for invasion by Helicobacter pylori. For almost a century doctors believed life style factors such as stress and diet are the predeisposing factors. including hyper-acidity thereby causing ulcers. While scientific evidence refuse. Several life style factors continue to be suspected of playing a role. These include cigarette.s''. foods and beverages containing caffine. alcohol and physical stress. Studeies have indicated that cigarette smoking increases one's chances of getting an ulcer. Smoking slows the healing of existing. ulcers and also contributes to ulcer recurrence. Coffee" tea". color and foods containing caffeine seeme to stimulate acid secretion in the stomach. aggrevating the pain of existing ulcer. Ulcers are also more common in people who have cirrhosis of the liver, a disease often linked to heavy alcohol consumption'". Although emotional stress is no longer thought to be a cause of ulcers, people with ulcers often report that emotional stress increases the ulcer pain. Physical stress, however increases the risk of developing ulcer particularly in stomach. Non steroidal anti inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs)" make the stomach vulnerable to the harmful effects of acid and pepsin. NSAIDs such as aspirin, ibuprofen, naproxen sodium are present in many nonprescription medications used to treat Fever, headache and minor aches and pains. These NSAIDs interfere with the stomach's ability to produce mucus and bicarbonates and affect blood flow to stomach and cell repair. They can all cause the stomach 's defense mechanism to fail resulting in an increased chance of developing stomach ulcers. In most cases these ulcers disappear once the patient stops taking NSAIDs.


Relation between H. Pylori and Disease

In early nineteen eighties Warren and Marshall published their findings about organism known as H.pylori and linked them to gastritis and peptic ulcer disease. Until then, HP was considered to be an artifact of the stam when stomach biopsies were looked at under the microscope. It is now believed that ulcer results from a complex interplay of acid and chronic inflammation induced by HP infection even though exact mechanism has not been elucidated. H.pylori is a spiral shaped bacterium found in the stomach. Scientists believe this damage of stomach wall is presumably because of H. pylori shape and characteristics. The bacterium survives in the stomach because it produces the enzyme urease. Urease generates substances that neutralize the stomach's acid. enabling the bacteria to survive. Because of their shape and the way they move, the bacteria can penetrate the stomach's protective mucous lining. Here they produce substance that can injure protective mucous lining and make the stomach cells more susceptible to the damaging effects of acid and pepsin. There are also some evidence That H. pylori lessen the love! of ascorbic acid in gastric juice.


PHYSIOLOGICAL MECHANISM OF ACID SECRETION :

One of the features of the mammalian stomach, considered to be hallmark of gastric function, is the ability to secrete acid. As the hydrogen ions are secreted and intragastric pH decreases to less than 3.5, the conversion of the zymogen pepsinogen to active proteolytic pepsin enzyme is facilitated. Another, one of the major role of acid is to kill bacteria and microbes to ensure a stable intragastric environment. Nevertheless, when bacteria are present, acid and pepsin do initiate the digestive process, and under certain circumstances they may injure the gastroduodenal mucosa. Human stomach contains nearly I billion parietal (oxyntic) cells, which are located in the walls of the midsection of oxyntic glands, the secretory unit of gastric mucosa. Distinguishing character of parietal cells are abundant mitochondria and tubovesicular and canalicular system 14,15. Elucidating the cellular mechanism involved in the hydrogen ion generation and secretion remains a difficult task because of the complexity of the regulatory process involved. Three distinctly different pathways deliver chemical messengers that stimulate acid secretion. The nearocrine pathway delivers transmitters such as acetalcholine. which are released from post ganglionic nerves in the stomach wall: the endocrine pathway delivers hormone such as gastrin; and paracrine pathway delivers tissue factors such as histamine, which are released from local storage sites and which diffuse across the intercellular space to their local target cells. Studies of various parietal cells obtained from various species, responding to histamine and acetalcholine and specific antagonists have permitted the characterization of receptors of various stimulants of the acid that are pressumed to be located on the basolateral membrane of the cells. Although parietal cells have receptors for gastrin. but their response to gastrine is greatly potentiate when H2 receptors are activated concomitantly. Thus histamine both transmits and facilitates the stimulation of acid secretion by gastrin. Once the agoinst binds to a specific receptor. secondary messengers are activated that act as transducer of signal thereby enhancing the cell functions, Histamine, but not acetalcholine or gastrin, presumbaly stimultes the parietal cell function by increasing cycle AMP production which then activates specific cyclic AMP dependent protein kinases. Cholinergic agent. e.g, acetylcholine, and gastrin. in contrast to histamine, appear to stimulate the parietal cells by increasing the level of cytosolic calcium in parietal as cells 16. Shown below is the schematic representation of the physiological mechanism as well sites of action of various antisecretory agents.


DIAGNOSIS OF PEPTIC ULCER DISEASE

Until early 1900s, the diagnosis was made on clinical grounds. By 1912. Friedenwald published the first case series of 1000 cases of peptic ulcer. He claimed he had exercised the greatest care to eliminate all cases in which there was the slightest doubt. However, he did not provide any diagnostic clue as to how he distinguished between his 500+ cases of duodenal ulcer from 400 + cases of gastric ulcer. By the year 1925, fractional test meal was being widely used for diagnosis. Barium contrast studies were also in vague by 1925 overtaking the rigid gastroscope, which were awkward to use. By 1950s flexible endoscopies revolutionized the direct visualization of ulcer discase. H. pylori may be presumed to be present in any patient with duodenal ulcer on endoscopy. However, many experts recommend documentation by microscopic examination of biopsy or urease test.


HOMOEOPATHIC TREATMENT OF PEPTIC ULCER DISEASE

Homoeopathy has proved to be very successful in treatment of peptic ulcer diseases. If properly selected on the basis of totality of symptoms, it will provide ultimate and complete cure with having no side effects to the patients. From the very broad spectrum of the medicines available in homoeopathy, the best selected remedy for individual will never fail. I am focussing a few medicines with indications which will cure peptic ulcer disease.


Anacradium

Symptoms disappear while eating and return soon after. Pain as if a blunt instrument pressing, as of a plug in the inner part. Swallows food and drinks hastily; symptoms disappear while eating. Sudden loss of memory.

Carbo veg.

Burning in the stomach, spreading down to intestine or back upon shoulders; pain paroxymal, takes away the breath, bitter taste before and after eating. Vomiting of sour bloody masses.

Colocynth

Frequent vomiting, which is caused by pain; annoyance or distress may results in extreme pain in any part of the body, causing vomiting. Agonizing pain in the abdomen, only relieved by bending double and pressing hard in the abdomen.

Lycopodium

Every thing sour taste. Heart burn, water brash, acidity. Great fullness in stomach after taking a mere mouth full of food. Constant sense of fermentation in abdomen, much rumbling ie particularly in the left hypochondrium region. Constipation, stool hard, Worse 4 to 8 p.m.

Nux vomica

Putrid or bitter taste early in the morning. Frequently sour eructation. Region of the stomach very sensitive to pressure; cramp like pain in the stomach with pressure particularly after the meal. Water brash, heart burn.

Calc. sulph.

Ulcer of stomach with gnawing pain, circumscribed to a small spot.

Kali. mur.

Ulceration of the stomach. Tongue is thickly coated white or grayish white. Tasteless or putrid efficatations; vomiting of sour, watery fluid or of blood.

Kali. phos.

Ulcer of stomach, with gone feeling in the stomach: hungry feeling after taking food. Flatulence, with weary feeling in the left side; gas gathers about heart, causing distress.

Mag. phos.

Spasm and cramping in the stomach, wilh gastric ulcer; tongue clean. Ulcer with niping gripping pain in the stomach, relieved by hot drinks.

Nat. phos.

Ulceration of the stomach or bowel, with vomiting of sour. acid fluids, or of a dark substance like coffee ground.


ARE STEROIDS USED IN HOMEOPATHIC MEDICINES?

Dr. Deepak Sharma

It is a very common myth among the average person and our colleagues from conventional medicine that we are using steroids mixed in homeopathic medicines. I understand their thinking because they are unaware of the principles of homeopathy and the power of tiny sweet pills. Few months back a report on the arrest of a prominent homeopathic physician charged with administering medicines laced with steroids to his patients had sparked a debate on the authenticity of homeopathic medicines. The matter caught the concern of homeopathic practitioners across the country and they stood up in defense of the authenticity of the medicines they prescribed. “Homeopathic medicines containing steroids is truly a misconception” because in certain illnesses like hyperacidity, anxiety disorders, asthma, eczema, migraines and many more that can otherwise only be temporarily treated with conventional medicine and steroids, homeopathy provides quick, safe and permanent relief. Homeopathic medicines make things normal within the body. It corrects the disease instead of suppressing it. When our medicine provides quick relief, the patient and others are prone to think that it contains steroids”. Here I describe how steroids are used in conventional medicine, the difference between steroids and homeopathy and what the test is to ensure that the medicines are not mixed with steroids. When a Homeopath begins his career in homeopathy, he starts with Anatomy, Physiology, Biochemistry, and Homeopathic Pharmacy in their first year; Pathology, Preventive and Social Medicine, Forensic Sciences in the second year; Clinical subjects like Surgery, ENT, Gynecology & Obstetrics, Ophthalmology, in the third year and Practice of medicine in the final year. Two subjects Materia Medica, Repertory and Organon of Medicine are subjects taken during each year and they are purely homeopathic subjects. While studying, we spend most of our time with homeopathic subjects or with our respected teachers/seniors, who are all doing homeopathic practice. “DURING THIS TIME, WE NEVER STUDY ANYTHING ABOUT STEROIDS”.
We observe thousands of miracles being performed by our masters by using simple homeopathic pills or dilutions. We also learn that “Homeopathy is the science of experience” and even we do not know neither the exact pharmacology of dilutions nor the exact action of the drug, but miracles happen. Nowadays, it seems there are many perceptions regarding the Homeopathic Pharmacology, but these perceptions are not entirely accurate. This is because modern science has been unable to find even a single atom in the dilution and it may be because Homeopathy is ahead of modern science. About 300 or 400 years ago nobody knew about atoms / electrons / protons or neutrons but today, a 4th grade child knows all of these. Every science has its own miracle men and Homeopathy waits for its “DISCOVERY MAN”.


Differences between Homeopathic Medicines and Steroids:

Chemical Test for Steroids in Homeopathic Medicines: Many times when a homeopathic physician performed a miracle, some had doubts about how he did this. In these instances, tests were performed for steroids in Homeopathic Medicine and in some cases, steroids were found. The truth is that when these medicines are tested, they may give a False Positive reaction for steroids because of the presence of lactose powder, which is often used as a vehicle for the drugs. Most milk products, including lactose, cane/beet sugar and certain plant derivations will give false positive test results for steroids using the colorimetric method. In this method when steroids or any reducing sugar is present in the material to be tested, a brilliant blue colored compound called 'farmazan' is produced as a result of the reaction between tetrazolium blue salt used in the test and the sample. Most homeopaths worldwide use saccharum lactis (sugar of milk) as a base to administer the homeopathic remedy or pills that are made of cane sugar or sucrose, a sugar substitute. Moreover, almost all homeopathic remedies have ethyl alcohol as a preserving agent. So if the drug contains any lactose or sucrose, it will impart a strong color which will give a false impression of the presence of steroids. One of the only conclusive methods is the 'UV absorption method' using a spectrophotometer. If tests conclusively do prove that the medicine given is indeed a steroid, disguised as a homeopathic drug, the patient is free to seek redress and file a complaint to the authorities. However, before acknowledging any claim that the tested medicine was adulterated, one must find out what testing procedures were used by the lab to eliminate the possibility of an erroneous and deceptive result. Conclusion is Homeopathic medicines are very effective. If we were using steroids, then there would be no need to fill our clinic with thousands of medicines with different potencies rather than just a few strips of steroids. I never force anyone to choose homeopathy but I request that if someone has no knowledge of homeopathy, please do not comment on Homeopathy practices.



होमियोपैथी का रहस्य

होमियोपैथी के समर्थको के लिए अच्छी खबर यह है की होमियोपैथी के उस रहस्य के खुलने की दिशा में शायद कुछ प्रगति हुई है , जिसकी वजह से होमियोपैथी के विरोधी इसे अवैज्ञानिक या सीधे -सीधे निरर्थक मानते थे । लोगो को याद होगा की ब्रिटिश मेडिकल एसोसिएशन ने काफी खोजबीन के बाद होमियोपैथी को बेकार करार दिया था । एसोसिएशन का निष्कर्ष था की होमियोपैथी दवाइयों का कुछ खास असर नहीं होता और ये दवाइया लेना या चीनी की सादी गोलिया खाना एक बराबर है । होमियोपैथी पे भरोसा करने वालो के पास भी इसका इस सवाल का कोई जवाब नहीं था की इतनी काम मात्रा में दी गई दवा कैसे असर करती है ।होमियोपैथी पे भरोसा करने वालो के पास भी इस बात का कोई जवाब नहीं था की इतनी काम मात्रा में दी गई दवा कैसे असर करती है । होमियोपैथी की दवा बनाने का तरीका यह ही की दवा के एक भाग को ९९ भाग एलकोहल में मिलाते है । इसे १-सी कहते है फिर इसी १-सी के एक भाग को ९९ भाग एलकोहल में मिलाते है इसे २-सी कहते है । इसी तरह दवा की सांद्रता को काम करते जाते है , माना यह जाता है की दवा की मात्रा जितनी कम होती जाएगी उसकी शक्ति उतनी बढ़ती जाएगी । होमियोपैथी में इ हज़ार और एक लाख तक की दवाई बनाते है लेकिन परंपरागत रसायन विज्ञानं के मुताबिक १२-सी और १३-सी शक्ति के बाद दवा की सामान्य मात्रा में मूल दवा का एक कण भी नहीं होना चाहिए ।अगर ऐसा है तो २०० और १००० शक्ति की दवाई कैसे कम करती है होमियोपैथी के आलोचकों का मानना है की इस लिए यह पद्धति धोखाधड़ी है होमियोपैथी पे विश्वास रखने वाले यह कहते है की कैसे पर यह दवाइया काम करती है

लेकिन अब आई. आई .टी . मुंबई के शोधकर्ताओ ने होमियोपैथी पे एक शोध पत्र लिखा है ।जिसमे उन्होंने कहा है की बेहद काम सांद्रता और ज्यादा शक्ति की दवाओं में भी दवा के नैनो कण मौजूद होते है और इसी वजह से ज्यादा शक्ति की दवाई ज्यादा असर करती है । इन शोधकर्ताओ ने आस -पास की दुकानों से ही होमियोपैथी दवा खरीदी और उनकी बेहद ताकतवर माइक्रोस्कोप से जांच की । इस जांच में उन्हें यह नतीजे मिले । एक प्रतिष्ठित संसथान से यह जांच हुई है तो हम इस पर भरोसा कर सकते है । यह कहना इसलिए जरूरी है क्योकि इससे पहले होमियोपैथी के रहस्यों को सुलझाने के कई दावे किये गए थे ।

,बाद में पता चला के वे धोखाधड़ी के मामले थे । मसलन एक बहुत प्रतिष्ठित पत्रिका में किसी ने एक शोध पत्र प्रकाशित किया था , जिसके मुताबिक उच्च शक्ति की दवाओं में मूल दवा के कण नहीं होते किन्तु उसके गुणों की छाप अलकोहल के अणुओ पर रह जाती है बाद में यह शोध फ़र्ज़ी निकला । फिलहाल होमियोपैथी अपने अविष्कार के तुरंत बाद भारत में आ गई थी और आज भी लोकप्रिय है । ईश्वर चंद्र विद्यासागर जैसे विख्यात लोगो ने होमियोपैथी में कई भारतीय दवाइया जोड़ी । भारतीयों का मानना यही है की इस दवा से फायदा होना चाहिए कैसे और क्यों इससे क्या फर्क पड़ता है । पश्चिमी देशो में होमियोपैथी के प्रयोग पर ही काफी बंदिशे है यह सिर्फ आदुनिक चिकित्सा में शिक्षा प्राप्त करे हुए डॉक्टर ही होमियोपैथी का इलाज कर सकते है । संभव है और वैज्ञानिक प्रमाण मिलने पर होमियोपैथी को उन देशो में मान्यता मिल सके ज़हा इसका जन्म और इसका विस्तार हुआ ।


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